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Tag: "cortex" at biology news

Putting feelings into words produces therapeutic effects in the brain

...eel better.” The right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex undergoes much of its development during a child’s...ng of emotions, the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex was activated, which seems to turn down activity in the amygdala. They then compared participants’ r...

Statin treatment improves spatial memory in mouse models of Alzheimer's

...s were significantly higher in the hippocampus and cortex of statin treated groups as compared to similar mice that did not receive statin. Furthermore, the levels of nNOS proteins were statistically higher in the hippocampus of the statin treated animals than in the cortex. nNOS is responsible for the rel...

How the brain's backup system compensates for stroke

...n a region of the brain called the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), which is known to govern the selection of an action. The PMd is mirrored in the two brain hemispheres, and the left-hemisphere PMd is dominant in such motor control function. Researchers had known that after a stroke damages one side of the br...

Role of noise in neurons

...smission is compromised. Neurons in the cerebral cortex of the brain can have a wiring density of up to 4km per mm3 by using incredibly thin axons as wires, with an average diameter of 0.3 micrometers (1ìm is one millionth of a meter). Although, as in computer chips, this miniaturization economizes on spa...

A frown or a smile? Children with autism can't discern

...t of the brain called the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), which is known to play a role in evaluating emotions. While these children looked at the direct-gaze faces, the VLPFC became active; with the averted-gaze pictures, it quieted down. In contrast, the autistic children showed no activity in th...

Gene mutation linked to cognition is found only in humans

...of the protein, is not expressed in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of lesser apes and Old World monkeys. In the current study, they tested the expression of type II in the PFC of two great ape species, chimpanzees and orangutans, and found that it was not present. Since these two species diverged most recently...

Revealing the machinery underlying the 'plastic' juvenile brain

...he response in the genetic machinery of the visual cortex in each animal's brain. They found that the bra...athways that control gene expression in the visual cortex of juvenile and adult mice, and that this developmental downregulation could regulate the developmen...

Rare cell prevents rampant brain activity

...how the most common type of neuron in the cerebral cortex ?the pyramid cell ?is prevented from becoming over-activated. Their results show that a rarer cell type that links collections of pyramid cells ?called a Martinotti cell ?acts as a kind of safety device. When a Martinotti cell receives signals above ...

Brain's reward circuit activity ebbs and flows with a woman's hormonal cycle

...pating a reward, they activated the amygdala and a cortex area behind the eyes that regulates emotion and re... to women and women had more activity in a frontal cortex (executive hub) area at the time of reward delivery compared to men. ...

MIT model helps researchers 'see' brain development

...e “central sulcus,?a fold that separates the motor cortex from the somatosensory cortex. Yu applied a technique developed by Fischl to perform this alignment. The second step involves modeling the folds of the brain mathematically in a way that allows the researchers to analyze their changes over time a...

Common gene version optimizes thinking -- but with a possible downside

...coursing between the human striatum and prefrontal cortex that affects key brain functions implicated in sch...ay translate into a disadvantage if the prefrontal cortex is impaired, as in schizophrenia," added Daniel Weinberger, M.D. "Normally, enhanced cortex connecti...

Reading hidden intentions in the human brain

...ing patterns of activity in the brain's prefrontal cortex as subjects concentrated on their choice of two fu...icated that activity in the area of the prefrontal cortex increases when humans engage in goal-related neural processing, but it has been unclear whether patt...

Wired for sound: How the brain senses visual illusions

...ments showed a boost of activity within the visual cortex of the brain immediately after hearing the second ... a rapid enhancement of processing in the auditory cortex of the brain. By observing the auditory boost, the researchers could predict when subjects would re...

Tracing broken wiring in stroke patients

...egions of the "attention networks" in the parietal cortex of the brain was disrupted in the brains of the stroke patients. The study also enabled new insights into how this disruption contributes to spatial neglect. Particularly important was that the FC MRI studies showed that the lower the functional c...

Using brain scans, researchers find evidence for a two-stage model of human perceptual learning

... brain, the now familiar area in lateral occipital cortex as well as an area in lateral prefrontal cortex, w...hen processing the images. "The lateral prefrontal cortex is known to be the center of cognitive control," Riesenhuber said. "That is where the brain connects...

Studies yield insight into the numerical brain

... findings "indicate an important role for parietal cortex in the coding of symbolic and nonsymbolic quantities." They also concluded that "crucially, we observed crossnotation adaptation and recovery, particularly in the right parietal cortex, supporting the idea that shared neural populations encode nons...

Brain networks strengthened by closing ion channels

...ology professor at Yale. The brain's prefrontal cortex (PFC) normally is responsible for so-called executive functions. The ability of the PFC to maintain such memory-based functions declines with normal aging, is weakened in people with ADHD, and is severely disrupted in disorders such as schizophrenia ...

Do you hear what i see?

...all, tightly packed fields in the monkeys?auditory cortex that differ by the frequency of sound they process...d that fields in the hindmost part of the auditory cortex showed activity when the monkeys watched the video without sound, and activity was enhanced when the...

UCLA: How does your brain respond when you think about gambling or taking risks?

...ward centers" in the brain, such as the prefrontal cortex and the ventral striatum, Poldrack said. The researchers also found that reward centers in the brain respond not only when we actually receive rewards but also when we make decisions about potential rewards, and that when we make decisions, the re...

Trying to control pain can be a double-edged sword, say scientists

...an control their pain, an area of their prefrontal cortex associated with a feeling of security is activated...h. "If we were able to stimulate the prefrontal cortex through psychological intervention, medication or some other stimulus, we could help reduce the pain...

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