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Tag: "copying" at biology news

An 'elegant' idea proves its worth 25 years later

The simple notion of copying the body’s own natural "waste disposal" chemistry to mop up potentially toxic nitrogen has saved an estimated 80 percent of patients with urea cycle disorders --- most of them children – according to a report in this week’s New England Journal of Med...

Revealing the machinery underlying the 'plastic' juvenile brain

...on of other genes. Transcription is the process of copying DNA genes into RNA, which acts as a blueprint for making proteins. As a test to determine whether such histone modification functionally affected plasticity, the researchers administered a drug to adult mice that would increase chemical modificati...

New technologies coming too fast for Indian farmers

...ssarily a bad thing; but in this case, everyone is copying everyone else, which results in fads, not testing." Stone argues that the previously undocumented pattern of fads, in which each village moves from seed to seed, reflects a breakdown in "environmental learning," leaving farmers to rely on "social lea...

Protein averts cell suicide but might contribute to cancer

...in, an enzyme called Dpo4, often makes errors when copying the genomic DNA sequence that later might cause the cell to become cancerous. The findings by researchers with Ohio State University 's Comprehensive Cancer Center are described in two back-to-back papers in The Journal of Biological Chemistry. ...

Gladstone investigators identify a new protective action for the powerful anti-HIV factor, APOBEC3G

...al sites with potentially damaging effect involves copying DNA into RNA and then back into DNA again. The A3G...plasm away from the nuclear machinery required for copying the RNA back into DNA and inserting the retro-element at a new chromosomal site. Understanding A3...

Novel experiment documents evolution of genome in near-real time

...bly as the result of naturally occurring errors in copying DNA into daughter cells during cell division. The precise changes in the sequence of DNA subunits were determined with comparative genomic sequencing technology from NimbleGen Systems, and further analyzed with technology from Sequenom Inc., a San Di...

Nobel Laureate finds 'elegant' explanation for DNA transcribing enzyme's high fidelity

...nscription, in which enzymes give “voice?to DNA by copying it into the RNA molecules that serve as templates for protein in organisms from yeast to humans. Now, Kornberg and his colleagues report in the December 1, 2006 issue of the journal Cell, published by Cell Press, new structures that reveal another cr...

Regulating the nuclear architecture of the cell

...ent locations in the genome, either directly or by copying themselves, inserting themselves in new sequences ...ons. "Short repetitive pieces of DNA that keep copying themselves could conceivably expand and take over the whole genome," says Karpen, "so some balance m...

Silver bullet: UGA researchers use laser, nanotechnology to rapidly detect viruses

... reaction (PCR), which detects the virus itself by copying it many times. The test can take anywhere from several days to two weeks. Tripp said the latter is clearly too long, especially in light of emerging threats such as H5N1 avian influenza. "For some respiratory viruses, you've either cleared the inf...

Two central mysteries in genome inheritance solved at UCSD

...r of identical sister chromatids, generated by the copying of the parental DNA strand. These pairs are held together during the early stages of cell division. Once all chromosomes properly connect to the spindle, the pairs are separated and sisters are pulled towards opposite ends of the spindle. "If bot...

Newly discovered behavior in cancer cells signals dangerous metastasis

...lternative splicing," a key element of the genetic copying program inside cells. Alternative splicing determines how the DNA is chopped into pieces and then reassembled. The order in which DNA is reassembled determines which proteins the gene produces. In cancer cells, the splicing machinery goes awry -- as...

Mobile DNA part of evolution's toolbox

The repeated copying of a small segment of DNA in the genome of a primeval fish may have been crucial to the transition of ancient animals from sea to land, or to later key evolutionary changes in land vertebrates. The discovery is "tantalizing evidence" that copied DNA ...

Weizmann Institute scientists discover a molecular security mechanism for keeping mutations in check

...c journal Molecular Cell. The instruments of DNA copying (which takes place prior to cell division) are mem...molecule, reading each bit of genetic material and copying as it goes along, to create new DNA that will be passed on to the daughter cell at cell division. Th...

Science captures the essence of fruit

...hile manufacturers have largely been successful in copying natural tastes and scents, they generally do so either through a chemical synthesis process or extraction from harvested raw ingredients. "Neither approach is ideal. Chemical synthesis requires heat and pressure, so is reliant on increasingly expen...

'Pinball protons' created by ultraviolet rays and other causes can lead to DNA damage

... in the DNA. These lesions, when replicated in the copying mechanisms of DNA, can lead to serious disorders such as cancer. The research, just published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), was led by doctoral student Maria Lind and Henry F. Schaefer III, Graham-Perdue Professor of...

When it comes to gene transcription, random pauses aren’t quite so random, study finds

...ds a new complementary strand of RNA by chemically copying ("transcribing") the gene one base at a time. RNAP will continue moving along the DNA strand until the entire gene sequence is transcribed onto the encoded RNA, which then serves as a template for building the actual protein. Nanotechnology To o...

A protein complex that untangles DNA

...angles, which are a natural consequence of the DNA copying process, are left unresolved the chromosomes cannot be separated and sent to the two nascent daughter cells. Like in the repair process, the Smc5/6 complex appears to resolve these intertwines by direct interaction with the DNA molecules, but this pr...

Pigeons provide clue to solving common problem in heart patients

...e. The process begins with "transcription," or the copying of a gene's DNA sequence. It is not known which genes might control the pigeons' heart vessel tissue-building process, so Wagner's group focused on "transcription factors," which regulate whether a gene is expressed and at what rate. The group's ai...

ANU scientists crack DNA replication mystery

...e tried in vain to understand the last step in the copying of DNA in cells that are about to divide. The research findings were published in the prestigious international journal Cell this morning. In all cells, DNA is copied by a large molecular machine called the replisome. The replisome does two things...

Study finds 60 new genes controlled by DNA snippet

...r mutations, are inserted into the code during the copying process. Some mutations bring survival advantages and others cause disease. Most known genetic diseases identified to date result from a mutation within a gene that directs protein construction, but that may soon change. "We believe more and more ...

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