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Tag: "converts" at biology news

Tiny particles could solve billion-dollar problem

...dium catalysts to break down TCE is that palladium converts TCE directly into non-toxic ethane. By contrast, breaking down TCE with more common catalysts, like iron, produces intermediate chemicals, like vinyl chloride, that are more toxic than TCE. In the CBEN experiments, Wong and collaborators compared th...

Muscle-targeted gene therapy reverses rare muscular dystrophy in mice

...h Pompe disease have a defect in a key enzyme that converts glycogen, a stored form of sugar, into glucose, the body's primary energy source. As a result, glycogen builds up in muscles throughout the body, including the heart, causing muscles to degenerate. Using genetically altered mice in which the gene fo...

Mayo Clinic Researchers Create 'Obedient Virus'; First Step To Use Measles Virus Against Cancer

...hers is first to devise a system that consistently converts the measles virus into a therapeutic killer that hunts down and destroys cancer cells -- and cancer cells only. Their research findings appear as an advanced electronic article of Nature Biotechnology. The researchers harnessed the viral trait for a...

Scientists journey to southern Africa to unravel the secret world of elephant communication

...ised an experiment using an electronic shaker that converts acoustic sounds into vibrations. The device was brought to Mushara in 2002 and buried near the waterhole. Using long wires, the researchers connected the shaker to a tape deck installed in the upper level of the observation tower 100 yards away. Eve...

NIAID begins clinical trial of West Nile virus vaccine

... machinery of the muscle cells "reads" the DNA and converts it into two WNV proteins. Recognizing that the proteins are foreign, the muscle cells display them on their surface to alert the body's immune system--both helper T cells, which spur the production of antibodies to block the WNV from gaining entry in...

Scientists use manufacturing methods to reconstruct mastodon

...acement bones with a rapid prototyping system that converts a digital representation back into a three-dimensional, physical object, building it up layer by layer, with each layer only 0.1 millimeter (0.004 inch) thick. Crews of UROP students and community volunteers also made molds of the bones, which took ...

New miniaturised chip dramatically reduces time taken for DNA analysis

...eating a measurable electrical current. The sensor converts this current into a signal that can be seen by the person controlling the tests, making him aware there are bacteria. Also, because the sensors are very small and easy to manipulate, it is possible to assemble a set of sensors that can collect data s...

Fungus-farming termites descend from an African rain forest Eve

... fungus and allow it to flourish, while the fungus converts otherwise indigestible plant material into nutrients the termites can utilize. Earlier work had shown that in the evolutionary past, a single, unreversed, transition to agriculture occurred in which termites domesticated a single lineage of fungi, re...

Researchers extend mouse lifespan by protecting against free radicals

...and the mitochondrion, the cell's power plant that converts organic matter into energy. They compared the different groups of mice to a control group and found that increased production of catalase could affect the mouse lifespan. The mice with higher catalase levels in the mitochondria, dubbed the MCAT grou...

Improving the potential of cancer vaccines

...ells. Treatment of Treg cells with these ligands converts suppressive Treg cells into non-suppressive T cells. "In fact, in some cases, this treatment actually enhanced anti-tumor immunity," he said. He hopes that clinical trials with these special ligands in patients with cancer can get underway quickly....

Tetanus toxin found to have therapeutic properties

...and they are more specific. This inhibitory effect converts the molecule into what could be a drug with many uses. It would be more effective than Prozac and more effective than any drug that works by selectively inhibiting the transportation of serotonin in the nerve endings. Behavioural disorders such as de...

Life-extending protein keeps blood sugar in check

...d mechanism that senses rises in blood glucose and converts that information into signals that increase the secretion of insulin, Imai explained. Insulin produced by the pancreas allows cells to take up glucose from the bloodstream and burn it for energy. A failure to make or respond to insulin in people with...

Sea Ice May Be on Increase in the Antarctic

...d mechanism that senses rises in blood glucose and converts that information into signals that increase the secretion of insulin, Imai explained. Insulin produced by the pancreas allows cells to take up glucose from the bloodstream and burn it for energy. A failure to make or respond to insulin in people with...

Making plant cells work like miniature factories

...os, and collected by an ion detector. The detector converts ion flux into a proportional electrical current. Finally, the magnitude of the electrical signals is recorded and plotted as a mass spectrum. The ability to sort and detect these ions at cellular-scale quantities is where the team hopes to fine-tune...

Prions rapidly 'remodel' good protein into bad, Brown study shows

...th the infectious prion form in yeast: The protein converts to the prion form, rendering it infectious. In an instant, good protein goes bad. This quick-change "mating" maneuver sheds important light on the mysterious molecular machinery behind prions, infectious proteins that cause fatal brain ailments such...

SLU researchers uncover direct evidence on how HIV invades healthy cells

...urvival. The first protein, reverse transcriptase, converts the ribonucleic acid (RNA) in HIV into deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Integrase then inserts the HIV DNA into the immune cell's DNA, making it a permanent part of the cell. The third protein, protease, processes viral proteins and is essential to mak...

Novel protein complex enables survival in hostile environment

...The enzyme, which is located on the cell membrane, converts toxic sulfite into sulfide, an essential nutrient of M. jannaschii. This enzyme, coenzyme F420-dependent sulfite reductase, or Fsr, "uses an unusual coenzyme ?a deazaflavin molecule called Factor 420 -- as an electron carrier for the reduction of s...

Portable cocaine sensor developed at UC Santa Barbara

...e sensor, the researchers took a DNA molecule that converts from a floppy and unfolded shape into a structured, folded shape in the presence of cocaine. They then observe the change in the DNA by monitoring how electrons travel through it. There are DNA molecules available that bind to many different targets,...

Pain killer fights breast cancer by targeting key enzyme

... breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Aromatase converts hormones called androgens into estrogens, such as the hormone estradiol. Estrogen is a powerful mitogen ?an agent that causes cells to divide, and too much estrogen can cause cells to divide too quickly. While many women with estrogen-dependent brea...

Newly identified mechanism helps explain why people of African descent are more vulnerable to TB

...in D receptors and an enzyme called Cyp27B1, which converts the vitamin from an inactive form to an active form, are dramatically increased. The result of this dual activation is the cleavage of a preexistent protein to a small peptide called cathelicidin, which can kill TB bacilli in the test tube. One of ...

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