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Tag: "controls" at biology news

A new mechanism of regulating RNA degradation

...egulating the life span of numerous RNAs, and thus controls gene activity. To better understand what controls the NMD system, Maquat and her postdoctoral fellow, Yoon Ki Kim, Ph.D., used a critical component of...

FDA Approves Human Hookworm Vaccine for Phase I Safety Trials

...egulating the life span of numerous RNAs, and thus controls gene activity. To better understand what controls the NMD system, Maquat and her postdoctoral fellow, Yoon Ki Kim, Ph.D., used a critical component of...

Plants, animals share molecular growth mechanisms

...ed Protein 2/3 (ARP2/3) is a cellular machine that controls formation of actin filaments, which are important for cell growth and movement. Actin filaments organize the inside of the cell and allow it to grow, and they determine where certain structures in a cell are positioned and how plants respond to gravi...

Scientists detect probable genetic cause of some Parkinson's disease cases

...ion of nerve cells in theportion of the brain that controls movement. Scientists have longsuspected genetics plays a role in the onset of the disease. In thesestudies, the investigators found that a mutation in the gene LRRK2appears to occur in at least one of every 60 people who have thedisease. Overall, the...

Novel Enzyme Shows Potential As An Anti-HIV Target

...y accepted model proposes that histone acetylation controls transcription by recruiting cofactors required for transcription. Acetylation and deacetylation enzymes can also target other proteins. Of the three classes of deacetylases known to modify human histones, the sirtuins (SIRT1?) appear to preferential...

Spider Venom Could Yield Eco-Friendly Insecticides

... have developed immunity to DDT and other chemical controls because most insecticides are neurotoxins that act against only a small number of nervous system targets. King's spider-venom cocktails could be designed to thwart the resistance of specific insect pests by locking on to novel molecular targets in th...

Researchers trace evolution to relatively simple genetic changes

...alked about it. It's a simple Mendelian trait that controls formation of hair, teeth and sweat glands. Darwin ...whether the genetic variant (the mutant gene) that controls this trait might still exist in the ocean fish. So we collected large numbers of ocean fish with com...

Octopuses occasionally stroll around on two arms, UC Berkeley biologists report

...alked about it. It's a simple Mendelian trait that controls formation of hair, teeth and sweat glands. Darwin ...whether the genetic variant (the mutant gene) that controls this trait might still exist in the ocean fish. So we collected large numbers of ocean fish with com...

New insight into people who 'see' colors in letters and numbers

... the experiments with both the synesthetes and the controls also revealed that the synesthetic colors were not as effective as real colors in such tasks. In fMRI scans, the researchers found that the synesthetes showed greater activation in a color-perception region of the cortex when viewing graphemes, comp...

Opposing fat metabolism pathways triggered by a single gene

...gues show that the nuclear hormone receptor nhr-49 controls two different aspects of fat metabolism, which int... Yamamoto K (2005) Nuclear hormone receptor nhr-49 controls fat consumption and fatty acid composition in C. elegans. PLoS Biol 3(2): e53. ...

Antibiotic might fight HIV-induced neurological problems

...hat can develop even though antiretroviral therapy controls the virus elsewhere in the body. Five monkeys infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), a very close relative of HIV, and treated with minocycline had less damage to brain cells, less brain inflammation, and less virus in the central nervou...

Potential treatments for neurofibromatosis

...which produces a protein called neurofibromin that controls cell division. If both NF 1 genes are defective, not enough neurofibromin is produced, cell division takes off and tumors develop. "It's like an engine being driven at full speed," said Dr. Clapp. To encourage development of the blood vessels they ...

Hirsute Or Hairless? Two Proteins May Spell The Difference

...al cells initiate the cell-to-cell “crosstalk?that controls bud formation by first directing a small cluster of epithelial cells to form a placode, the pouch that forms hair plugs. The placode in turn directs underlying mesenchymal cells to form the base of the hair follicle, called the dermal papilla, and bo...

Wisconsin researchers identify sleep gene

... gene, called Shaker, produces an ion channel that controls the flow of potassium into cells, a process that critically affects, among other things, electrical activity in neurons. A handful of recent studies suggest that potassium channels are also involved in the generation of sleep in humans. Reported in ...

Viral protein influences key cell-signaling pathway

...vity of an important gene in host cells. That gene controls production of a cell protein called p300. The p300 protein, in turn, controls a variety of other genes in many types of cells, including T lymphocytes, the cells that HTLV-1 infe...

50-year-old Mystery Solved: Protein Tags Regulate Key Ion Channel

..." Goldstein added. "Our work shows how sumoylation controls one important process at the cell surface and hints that it may influence others." Additional authors include co-first authors Sindhu Rajan and Leigh Plant, as well as Michael Rabin and Margaret Butler, all from the Institute for Molecular Pediatric...

Key mechanism in genetic inheritance during cell division identified

...ives shape to cell walls and other structures, and controls the transportation of substances in and out of a cell. During cell division (mitosis), the microtubule fibers disassemble and reform into spindles across which duplicate sets of chromosomes line up. During this phase, it is critical that the spindles...

New insight into regulation of blood stem cells

...t is remarkable that a single transcription factor controls the diverse processes of self-renewal, proliferati...ke. "The next challenge is to understand how c-Myb controls HSC numbers and use this information to develop compounds that can regulate stem cell proliferation ...

Survey finds silver contamination in North Pacific waters

... coal is the primary fuel and the use of emissions controls is limited. Major pollutants from the burning of coal are nitrogen and sulfur compounds that contribute to acid rain and smog. Previous studies by Flegal's group have also found high mercury levels in rainfall on the U.S. West Coast, which they linke...

Super predators and mass extinctions

... living space. The model also included a term that controls mutation rates, allowing new species to develop over time. The model shows that, much of time, the system is populated with "medium efficiency" predators whose numbers fluctuate only slightly as the prey population waxes and wanes. Inevitably, their ...

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