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Tag: "contributes" at biology news

Deficient DNA Repair Capacity Associated With Increased Risk Of Breast Cancer

... that deficiency in cells' capacity for DNA repair contributes to the accumulation of DNA damage and accelerates the genetic changes involved in carcinogenesis. To evaluate whether reduced DNA repair capacity in the nucleotide excision pathway that fixes DNA alterations known as bulky DNA adducts is associated ...

It's not all genetic: Common epigenetic problem doubles cancer risk in mice

..., our results show that loss of imprinting of IGF2 contributes to colon cancer's development in the mice. It doesn't cause tumors directly, but it creates an environment which is ripe for cancer to start." Because precursor cells in the colon's lining had been identified as a likely starting point for tumors, F...

Iron Deficiency Sparks Dramatic Changes In Gene Expression

...s anddevelopmental disorders. Iron deficiency also contributes to thepathology of hereditary blood disorders, Parkinson's disease andcertain cancers and develops during a number of chronic diseases, theresearchers said.Until now, however, a cell's response to iron deprivation was poorlyunderstood. In the Duke st...

Enzyme allows B cells to resist death, leading to leukemia

...ularlocation of an enzyme in B cells known as Lyn, contributes to thedevelopment of B-CLL. The authorsexamined leukemia cells from 40 patients with B-CLL and compared themwith lymphocytes from normal donors. They found that Lyn was markedlyoverexpressed in CLL cells and an unusual amount of the enzyme wasfound ...

Researchers identify target for cancer drugs

...ticular communication pathway inside of cells that contributes to many malignant brain and prostate cancers. While scientists have identified elements of this pathway, other key components have remained a mystery. Researchers at Whitehead Institute now have discovered a missing puzzle piece, a finding that may p...

Plant hemoglobins: Oxygen handlers critical for nitrogen fixation

...ation is important for sustainable agriculture and contributes millions of tons of reduced nitrogen to crops and pastures each year. As reported this week, researchers led by Dr. Michael Udvardi at the Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology have succeeded in eliminating the production of symbiotic h...

Vital step in cellular migration described by UCSD medical researchers

...otein called Rac. "Understanding how this protein contributes to directional movement of a cell provides a new insight into cell migration and ultimately could lead to therapeutic interventions in autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease," said the paper's first author Naoyuki Nishiya,...

Antibiotic might fight HIV-induced neurological problems

...ch then enter the brain. The influx of these cells contributes to swelling and inflammation known as encephalitis. The other protein, p38, helps trigger a series of events that result in a cell's programmed death, called apoptosis. Only one of the five treated monkeys showed any signs of encephalitis, and that ...

Asthma gene clusters identified

...ions in children, but they also know that genetics contributes to susceptibility. There are no cures for asthma, but it can be controlled with treatment. To date, researchers have identified individual genes involved in asthma, but this is the first time that clusters of known genes have been identified as bein...

Genetically modified rice in China benefits farmers' health, study finds

...p yields and reduced use of pesticides, which also contributes to the improved health of farmers." China began doing research on genetically modified agricultural crops in the 1980s. Although it has aggressively commercialized "Bt cotton," genetically modified to produce a natural pesticide against the bollworm...

Discovery Promises Simpler Therapy for Sickle Cell Disease

...t abnormal blood vessel control by red blood cells contributes to the vessel obstruction characteristic of sickle cell disease, and that variation in symptom severity among patients may be explained, in part, by variable deficiency in the processing of nitric oxide," Stamler said. In light of the discovery, the...

Researchers report new pro-inflammatory role for anti-inflammatory enzyme

.... This results in an increase in cellular NO which contributes to inflammation and host defense. "NO acts as a cytotoxic/cytostatic effector molecule released (predominantly) by immune cells," explains Dr. Adrian J. Hobbs of University College London. "It kills pathogens via a variety of mechanisms, mostly rela...

Mystery Blood Vessel Disorder Implicated In 'Mini' Strokes

... research. It may be that dolichoectasia causes or contributes to small vessel disease, and/or that the two have common causes. Nearly a quarter of all strokes arise from blood flow problems in the smallest blood vessels of the brain. Patients with the disease are usually found to have high blood pressure, but ...

Signs of aging: Scientists evaluate genes associated with longevity

... metabolic repression in early and mid-life adults contributes substantially to the observed longevity of daf-2," says Dr. Julius Halaschek-Wiener, a researcher at the BC Cancer Agency's Genome Sciences Centre and first author on the study. Another notable observation was that stress-response factors such as hs...

Norovirus found to cause traveler's diarrhea

...this is the first study to indicate that Norovirus contributes to traveler's diarrhea in visitors to Guatemala. Amy R. Chapin, first author of the study and a PhD-candidate in the Department of Environmental Health Sciences at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, noted that 11 Norovirus-positive...

The circadian clock: Understanding nature's timepiece

...cadian rhythms. In some cases, the circadian clock contributes to survival strategies as simple as not drying out when the sun comes up. Plants and animals have their own environmental niches and also unique temporal niches, as any cat owner can tell you. ...

Newly Discovered 'Branding' Process Helps Immune System Cells Pick Their Fights

...od vessel walls may lead to immune reactivity that contributes to narrowing and stiffening of blood vessels. ### Herzog J, Maekawa Y, Cirrito TP, Illian BS, Unanue ER. Activated antigen-presenting cells select and present chemically modified peptides recognized by unique CD4 T cells. Proceedings of the Nationa...

Antiretroviral Therapy May Prevent HIV Transmission From Breastfeeding Mothers To Infants

...nce for HIV-1 DNA, which some studies suggest also contributes to mother-to-child transmission. One possible explanation for this lack of association between antiretroviral therapy and HIV DNA levels, the investigators hypothesized, may be the short duration of treatment in the study (a median of 98 days). Combi...

The making and breaking of microtubules

...s. These tubes are double-layered, a property that contributes to their stability -- but it also put the brakes on the project for a long time. "The key was to get the tubulin assemblies locked at the correct states suitable for structural analysis, but even more challenging was finding an algorithm to reconstr...

Combination therapy leads to partial recovery from spinal cord injury in rats

... shown that the loss of myelin around nerve fibers contributes to the impaired function after a spinal cord injury. However, until now it has not been clear whether promoting new myelin growth in the spinal cord can reverse this damage, says Scott R. Whittemore, Ph.D., of the University of Louisville in Kentucky...

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