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Tag: "connectivity" at biology news

Rats infected as newborns grew up vulnerable to memory problems during an immune challenge

...e astrocytes also help to determine the number and connectivity of nervous system synapses early in life, especially the first week after birth in rats, they may be involved in the ability to learn and remember, possibly via some link (says Bilbo) to cytokine IL-1BETA production. ...

Researchers discover underwater volcano

...nications system that provides continuous Internet connectivity for oceanographic research vessels at sea. ...

Mapping neuron connections in the brain

...ks to a new theoretical approach to mapping neuron connectivity published in PLoS Computational Biology by Bagrat Amirikian, a researcher at the Department of Neuroscience at the University of Minnesota, the task is now feasible. In the past, mapping connections between neurons was limited to either highly simpli...

Depression gene may weaken mood-regulating circuit

... amygdala fear response depends upon the degree of connectivity in this circuit, which is influenced by the serotonin transporter gene." Since serotonin activity plays a key role in wiring the brain's emotion processing circuitry during early development, the researchers propose that the short variant leads to s...

Brain networks change according to cognitive task

...gnitive task. These techniques examining effective connectivity enable us to learn how the brain changes its interconnectivity according to the task at hand." The Northwestern researchers also propose to explain the role of each brain region as it interacts within a complex network to achieve a specific cognitiv...

MIT researcher presents new view of how the cortex forms

...h and growth of new neurons, neurons' movement and connectivity within the brain, and which ones live and which are killed off. Later, at a critical point in development, activity in the form of outside stimulation refines the brain's topography and networks to create the specific functions and areas of the post...

Scientists crack code for motor neuron wiring

...omosomal organization, and the differentiation and connectivity of motor neuron pools," he said. Jessell said thi... in changes in motor neuron identity, and in their connectivity to muscle targets. The studies also raise the possibility that the combinatorial code contains addi...

Sensors, a smart dose of medicine for cancer treatment

...rrays. The PC and software provide system control, connectivity to other parts of an overall radiotherapy system, such as record and verify packages, and patient-specific data storage. INVORAD also developed a cylindrical 'body phantom'. The 'phantom' is given the prescribed dose and the diode sensors pick up th...

New discovery: Molecular variation in one gene affects the growth of natural populations

...al factors. The size of the habitat patch and its connectivity to existing populations affect migration and gene flow between populations. The study shows that genetic factors and the structure of the habitat together influence variation in population growth. The results also show that the structure of the habi...

UC San Diego partners with Venter Institute to build marine microbial genomics cyberinfrastructure

...n bandwidth over current standards. The enhanced connectivity is based on a model pioneered by the OptIPuter project and funded by the National Science Foundation. "Linking Venter Institute to Calit2 will be the first persistent application of the OptIPuter high-performance 'collaboratory'," said Calit2 directo...

Long-term changes in experience cause neurons to sprout new long-lasting connections

...s team was looking to see if persistent changes in connectivity occurred after a long-term change in experience. They focused on the formation of new long-lasting spines that indicate robust connections between a neuron's highly branched dendrites and nearby axons. Dendrites are the input side of neurons and axon...

Life and death in the hippocampus: what young neurons need to survive

...nt is a competition between mature cells vying for connectivity and young guys competing with both the mature cells and their peers to fit in. You are selecting for the cell that performs best in this environment." The Gage lab previously showed that the rate at which new neurons emerge from stem cells depends ...

New roles for growth factors: Enticing nerve cells to muscles

...d post-polio syndrome. Failure to establish proper connectivity in the brain may also underlie autism spectrum disorders and mental retardation. The multitasking members of the FGF growth factor family regulate blood vessel formation, wound repair, lung maturation, and development of skeletal muscle, blood and b...

Carnegie Mellon researchers discover key deficiencies in brains of people with autism

...ality in the cabling. The results suggest that the connectivity among brain areas is among the central problems in... emphasis on collaborating. In autism, the network connectivity (the bandwidth) through which the areas communicate with each other may be limited, particularly in ...

New neurons could act to alleviate epilepsy

...cal running environment, showed reduced excitatory connectivity to other neurons, as well as increased inhibitory ... They wrote that "following insult, the functional connectivity of new neurons seems to develop in order to mitigate the dysfunction in the epileptic brain. These d...

Brain regions do not communicate efficiently in adults with autism

...viduals, the scientists found patterns of abnormal connectivity between brain regions in people with autism. These abnormalities showed both over and under connectivity between neurons in different parts of the cortex, according to Michael Murias, a postdoctoral resear...

Slow brain waves play key role in coordinating complex activity

...egions talk to each other, and there is a level of connectivity between cortical regions not apparent by any current means of detection. "By measuring high-gamma band activity, we will be able to see in real time, during surgery, how cortical regions are connected through subcortical systems, allowing us to unde...

Brain networks strengthened by closing ion channels

...ike guanfacine. "Guanfacine can strengthen the connectivity of these networks by keeping these channels closed, thus improving working memory and reducing distractibility," she said. "This is the first time we have observed the mechanism of action of a psychotropic medication in such depth, at the level of io...

Tracing broken wiring in stroke patients

...he study revealed new details about how functional connectivity within and between different regions of the "atten...C MRI studies showed that the lower the functional connectivity of these regions, the more impaired the patients were in perceiving the neglected region of their vi...

Wired for sound: How the brain senses visual illusions

...hat there are consistent differences in the neural connectivity that are possibly shaped during one's development and through experience," she said. Next, the researchers plan to look at whether or not attention affects these illusory sensations. These studies could shed light on how people deprived of one sen...

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