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Tag: "coding" at biology news

Cigarette smoke alters DNA in sperm, genetic damage could pass to offspring

...late mutations in non-coding regions with those in coding regions, and that some repetitive regions of DNA (not exam-ined in this study) are associated with genes. “It stands to reason that mutations could also interfere with genes, but our ongoing research looks to clarify the severity of DNA damage th...

Exploring the dark matter of the genome

...matin, with much longer gaps (introns) between the coding sections of the gene (exons); unlike the introns in euchromatic genes, these long gaps consisted almost entirely of repeating sequences derived from disabled transposons. The evidence suggests that heterochromatic genes are regulated differently from...

Researchers discover 'acquired' DNA key to certain bacterial infection

...rchers did discover that one of the genes provides coding for a protein that targets action in the host cell, which may help the bacterium survive in the macrophage. Bermudez said the researchers learned the genetic “island” was acquired from another bacterium because of its unique nucleotide structure, ...

Human genetic 'deserts' are teeming with significant life

.... “We found that the vast majority of the protein coding genes we studied utilised often in a tissue-specific manner previously unknown set of exons [the regions of DNA within a gene that are transcribed to messenger RNA] outside the current boundaries of the annotated genes ”, Professor Reymond will say....

The sound of proteins

...]. The browser allows anyone to send in a sequence coding for a protein that is then converted into music and returned to the inquirer as a midi file....

Role of noise in neurons

...taken into account in any future studies of neural coding and the reliability of synaptic transmission. ...

Genome of yellow fever/dengue fever mosquito sequenced

...d about 80 percent of the 15,419 predicted protein coding genes in Ae. aegypti. He explains, "An important p...quito genome. "Although the majority of protein coding TE copies in Ae. aegypti appear to be degenerate, a significant number of elements have potentially ...

Stability of mRNA/DNA and DNA/DNA duplexes modulates mRNA transcription

...at stable sense duplexes are characteristic of the coding sequences. Next, the authors showed a relationship between the pattern of thermodynamic stability and the mRNA level of genes. There is a general trend of increased mRNA level with increasing thermodynamic stability of the respective gene. Positiv...

Studies yield insight into the numerical brain

...icate an important role for parietal cortex in the coding of symbolic and nonsymbolic quantities." They also concluded that "crucially, we observed crossnotation adaptation and recovery, particularly in the right parietal cortex, supporting the idea that shared neural populations encode nonsymbolic quanti...

Primitive yeast yields secrets of human cholesterol and drug metabolism

...s that genetic variations in the genetic blueprint coding for Dap1 may provide clues to how and why different people react differently to certain drugs. “Understanding the molecular underpinnings of so-called pharmacogenetic variation will have a big impact on the future of medicine,?he says....

Can engineered immune cells stop AIDS?

... "In laboratory tests, we remove harmful genes coding for the HIV virus and engineer the backbone, or spine, of virus so that it is no longer replicable " he says. "Once manufactured recombinantly, this modified virus ?the lentiviral vector -- becomes a natural delivery system that can transport useful...

The influence of the menstrual cycle on the female brain

...and their projection sites2, is crucial for neural coding of rewards. Its dysfunction can result in disorders such as addictions and is also implicated in various psychiatric and neurological pathologies, such as Parkinson's disease and schizophrenic disorders. Many studies on animals prove that the dopamin...

Brain tissue reveals possible genetic trigger for schizophrenia

...A act by binding to matching pieces of the protein coding mRNA, thus preventing the translation of mRNA to protein. When a cell needs certain proteins, the microRNAs may disconnect, thus allowing protein expression to resume. Using postmortem prefrontal cortical brain tissue of people with schizophreni...

Neuron cell stickiness may hold key to evolution of the human brain

...ed that it would be a combination of DNA sequences coding for genes and DNA sequences that control when genes are switched on or off. In this study by comparing the entire genome of many organisms to that of humans we were able to identify a series of human-specific sequence changes that have a high likeli...

Peering into the shadow world of RNA

.... If their insertion spot happens to be within the coding region for a vital gene, the result can be destruction of the gene, leading to birth defects and genetic disease. Over evolutionary history, this ability of transposons to copy themselves to new locations has helped them to dramatically expand th...

Discovery of the first resistance gene to rice yellow mottle virus

...ransgene . Viruses are built with a small genome coding for a limited number of proteins (5 in the RYMVs). They therefore need their host's proteins in order to accomplish each stage of their infection cycle. One of the proteins that the RYMV requires appears to be the eIF(iso)4G translation initiation fa...

Sea urchin genome suprisingly similar to man and may hold key to cures

...the purple sea urchin is composed by 814 "letters" coding for 23,300 genes. Sea urchins are echinoderms, marine animals that originated more than 540 million years ago. The reason for the great interest in sequencing the sea urchin genome is because it shares a common ancestor with humans. Sea urchins ar...

Protein splicing upsets the DNA colinearity paradigm

...encoding DNA. Genes have stretches of (protein) coding DNA sequences interspersed with stretches of non-c... that the non-coding sequences are removed and the coding sequences are assembled in a linear fashion to form the template for translation from RNA to protein...

Researchers discover mechanism that determines when detailed memories are retained

... a study published in 2005, he discovered a neural coding mechanism that the brain relies upon to register the intensity of memories based on the importance of the experience. The study presented the first evidence that a "memory code" of any kind may exist. His laboratory also was the first to induce a spe...

Resistance and genetic sensitivity to sleeping sickness

...influence of certain mutations on the DNA of genes coding for particular immune system proteins (cytokines) in manifestation of the disease. This type of study consists in comparing the frequency of a mutation in subjects with symptoms and in healthy individuals. When the frequency of a mutation is signific...

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