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Tag: "code" at biology news

Breakthrough developments in rheumatoid arthritis reported

...oint swelling. Scientists are cracking the genetic code that makes the immune system wage an attack on a person’s joints. Over the last decade, Dr. Gregersen and his colleagues have been amassing a genetic database complete with siblings with rheumatoid arthritis (and some family members without it) in an...

New findings challenge established views on human genome

...ments and other types of DNA sequences that do not code for proteins, interact in overlapping ways not yet...ditionally defined as the parts of the genome that code for proteins. The protein-coding component of these genes makes up just a small fraction of the huma...

Exploring the dark matter of the genome

...of biological importance, including sequences that code for non-protein-coding RNAs and other functional e...ands are single-copy genes, or lengths of DNA that code for RNAs other than the messenger RNA needed to make proteins, and other functional elements. Mo...

Mutating the entire genome

...omes include roughly 20,000 genes, which carry the code needed for cells to produce the proteins used to make body parts and carry out most functions in living organisms. Genes typically have 50,000 base pairs but can range in size from a few thousand to 300,000 base pairs, Capecchi says. The genes in...

Understanding why C. difficile causes disease -- it's hungry

...romosome known as the tcd locus. Two of the genes code for the toxins the bacterium produces that cause disease and a third gene codes for a protein that makes a hole in the organism’s cell envelope to let the toxins out. The last two genes are of greatest interest to Sonenshein and his colleague, Bruno...

First confirmed common genetic risk factors for breast cancer

...ide association study report that these five genes code for proteins crucial to biological activities that previously had not been implicated as triggers of breast cancer. The genes carry the DNA recipes for proteins important to the growth and duplication of body cells and the signalling, or communicati...

The sound of proteins

...focus on codons ?sets of three adjacent bases that code for particular amino acids. They decided to include four different note durations with codons that appear more frequently transcribed into longer notes than those which appear less often. Individual amino acids are expressed as chords, in which simil...

Researchers publish first marsupial genome sequence

...me, not just the fraction that contains genes that code for proteins. We must identify all functional elements in the genome if we are to have the most complete toolbox possible to explore human biology and improve human health." Marsupials are unique among mammals because their young are born at an e...

Dinosaur hearing, listening to muscle noise, quieter cubicles

... sessions can be accessed by typing in the session code followed by an asterisk (e.g., 2aAB*). PALEOHEARING--HOW DINOSAURS HEARD THEIR WORLD Studying the auditory systems of living organisms is helping scientists to learn the evolutionary pressures their ancestors faced, and even to reconstruct the...

Danish researches solve virus puzzle

...ar motors', which move along the RNA and read the code for the proteins to be produced to fulfill the nee...ing cell. The task of the ribosomes is to read the code of the host cell, but the virus has the special trick that its RNA resembles that of the host cell, ...

Individuals and populations differ in gene activity levels, not just genes

Much like how a person's genetic code differs from other individuals, the level at which...iation, in which individual letters in the genetic code change between individuals and between different populations. However, this study is one of the firs...

2 brains -- 1 thought

...s, when they send electrical pulses - like a Morse code - to other cells of the brain. This process depends on the exact dynamics of the neuronal activity. When the brain receives sensory input, calculates or remembers, it processes information encoded in a series of neuronal impulses in different nerve c...

A genetic 'gang of 4' drives spread of breast cancer

...focused on four of these genes. These genes, which code for proteins called epiregulin, COX2, and matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 2, were already known to help regulate growth and remodeling of blood vessels, said Massagué. "Our understanding of the genes for these four proteins and their behavior in me...

Researchers find gene mutation that causes infertility in male mice

...of genetics. The gene, called Dmc1, provides the code for a key protein involved in meiosis, the process that produces sperm and egg cells for reproduction. These sex cells contain only one set of chromosomes that combine during conception and create an embryonic cell with two chromosome sets, one from ...

Renegade RNA -- Clues to cancer and normal growth

...pkins have discovered that a tiny piece of genetic code apparently goes where no bit of it has gone before...A report on the renegade ribonucleic acid, and the code that directs its movement, will be published Jan. 5 in Science. MicroRNAs, already implicated in ...

New study sheds light on 'dark states' in DNA

...to exist in three of the five bases of the genetic code -- cytosine, thymine and uracil. The detection of this dark state in single bases in solution increases the chances that it may be found in the DNA double helix, said Bern Kohler, associate professor of chemistry at Ohio State and head of the resea...

Infection detectives use disease 'fingerprints' to track common infections in children

...trigger the activation of very specific genes that code for proteins called receptors in leukocytes, the white blood cells th at help the body fight infections. Researchers surmised that if they looked at the leukocytes, they could detect the specific pattern of receptors ?similar to a disease "fingerprin...

Scientists find new genes for Crohn's disease

...ontrols. SNPs are subtle variations in the genetic code found in all genes. Some variations can be harmful, while others may be helpful or have no effect at all. The comparison of these SNPs between patients with Crohn's disease and people without the disease identified multiple variations in several g...

Stability of mRNA/DNA and DNA/DNA duplexes modulates mRNA transcription

.../DNA duplets (rAA/dTT, rUA/dAT, etc.). Such duplet code does not carry any genetic information but seems to modulate the level of RNA expression. It is amazing that the same nucleotide sequence can simultaneously encode its respective protein and modulate its level of expression." says Stoynov. The mech...

Post oak grasshoppers emerging

...of their house isn't necessary, he said, but a zip code and a nearby major intersection would be helpful. If possible, they should send a digital photo of the grasshopper so he can positively identify it. Behmer wants to use this information to begin mapping their location throughout the state and to crea...

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