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Tag: "circuit" at biology news

Salk scientists hammer out a pathway that promotes muscle cell survival in mice

...types. "In addition to muscle, this regulatory circuit is present in brain and heart tissue, where it also seems to control cell survival," said Marc Montminy, M.D., Ph.D., professor in the Clayton Foundation Laboratories for Peptide Biology at the Salk Institute and senior author of the study. "Therefor...

How the brain's backup system compensates for stroke

...tion. When a key node in an information-processing circuit is impaired, healthy cortical networks can flexibly reconfigure processing in a way that is rapid, functionally-specific, and preserves behavior." ...

Brain's reward circuit activity ebbs and flows with a woman's hormonal cycle

...ys signals from these areas to the cortex. Reward circuit neurons harbor receptors for estrogen and progeste...rone. However, how these hormones influence reward circuit activity in humans has remained unclear. To pinpoint hormone effects on the reward circuit, Ber...

A 'traffic light' for neurons means 'go' for improving brain research

...y step toward the important goal of mapping neural circuit dynamics on a millisecond timescale to see if impa...he causal role of specific cell types is in neural circuit function." Knowing the effects that different neurons have could ultimately help researchers figu...

Common gene version optimizes thinking -- but with a possible downside

..."We have found that DARPP-32 shapes and controls a circuit coursing between the human striatum and prefrontal...the most common version of the gene, which boosted circuit activation, structural and functional connectivity and performance on thinking tasks, likely by incr...

Scientists find potential 'off-switch' for HIV virus

...erve as a "resistor," a component of an electrical circuit that reduces the flow of current. "The resisto...he answer in a strand of HIV's DNA where a genetic circuit exists -- not an electrical circuit, but a set of chemical reactions that runs in a loop. First, one...

Scientists to track impact of Asian dust and pollution on clouds, weather, climate change

...malian brain, and we believe this advance in nerve circuit mapping will be to neurobiology what microarray technology has been to genomic science -- a fundamental breakthrough," Ehlers said. Microarray technology enables scientists to screen thousands of genes at once to look for clusters of genes that may b...

Common algae helps illustrate mammalian brain electrical circuitry

...malian brain, and we believe this advance in nerve circuit mapping will be to neurobiology what microarray technology has been to genomic science -- a fundamental breakthrough," Ehlers said. Microarray technology enables scientists to screen thousands of genes at once to look for clusters of genes that may b...

Cells use 'noise' to make cell-fate decisions

...et of genes turned on ?the same hard-wired genetic circuit ?there will still be slight variations in the amou...es produce, some fluctuation in the amount of each circuit component. No two cells are alike in terms of their chemical composition." Conventional scientifi...

Growth factor stimulates rapid extension of key motor neurons in brain

...tion to providing insight into the development and circuit formation of this critical population of neurons, these results might lead to the future ability to treat motor neuron disorders and spinal cord injuries." Although their cell bodies are located in the brain, CSMN axons extend down to the neurons...

Two nerve cells in direct contact

...lexander Borst. The next step was to analyse the circuit diagram of the tangential cells of the lobula plate in detail. This was based on a multitude of experiments in which the connections between the cells within one lobular plate and those between the two hemispheres were examined. In the end it turned ...

NHGRI aims to make DNA sequencing faster, more cost effective

...with on-chip silicon-based electronic circuits and circuit techniques that amplify and isolate their various electrical signals. This group will also design a dipole-sensing methodology, which in principle can distinguish signals from each of the DNA bases. Arrays of nanopores will be constructed on silicon ...

Proteins necessary for brain development found to be critical for long-term memory

... connections between the brain cells in the reflex circuit normally induced by the shock treatment was also blocked. "We would never have expected that the secretion of these growth factors in response to serotonin would be critical for long-term memory formation in this system," Carew said. "But it is app...

Neural networking nanotubes

...carbon, carbon nanotubes, to connect an integrated circuit to nerve cells. The new technology offers the possibility of building an interface between biology and electronics. Kotov and colleagues at Oklahoma State University and the University of Texas Medical Branch have explored the properties of single-...

Emotional control circuit of brain's fear response discovered

...t of time. "This paper adds important regulatory circuit information about the fear response in the amygdala," said Dr. Hirsch. "For example, if someone is walking on an empty street at night and hears a loud banging sound in the near distance, the amygdala would immediately light up. But instead of alwa...

A simple feedback resistor switch keeps latent HIV from awakening

...sufficient to encode a resistor that explained Tat circuit shutoff and possibly the stability of HIV's latent state. In the Tat resistor model, as in the cell, Tat deacetylation occurs at a much faster rate than acetylation. Deacetylated (inactive) Tat can take one of two paths--reconversion in to acetyl...

Electronic chip, interacting with the brain, modifies pathways for controlling movement

...mputer interface, but last for many days after the circuit is turned off. "This unusually long-lasting plasticity may be related to the fact that the conditioning is associated with normal behavior," Fetz said. ...

The brain's motivation station

.... Thus, anticipatory activation of this mesolimbic circuit may help translate motivation into memory." ...

The brain, traffic and nano-circuits -- e-Science takes on major challenges

... grid infrastructure and e-Science tools to enable circuit designers to share models that simulate nano-component behaviour and explore the implications for circuit design. It will help UK circuit designers to remain internationally competitive and overcome the dis...

Snakes' virtual glasses, leopard spots and all-optical transistors

...vailable to journalists on request) All-optical circuit components are light-based analogues of electrical transistors and other devices. They are among the most eagerly anticipated technological advances, with the potential to revolutionize computers and communications. But all-optical devices built in t...

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