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Tag: "chromosomes" at biology news

Combination therapy boosts effectiveness of telomere-directed cancer cell death

.... Telomeresare DNA sequences found at the ends of chromosomes that play a key rolein controlling the life span of cells. With every cell division,telomeres get a bit shorter until eventually they become so short thatthe enzymes that copy DNA for cell division no longer work properly andthe cell stops dividing. ...

GATA: a graphic alignment tool for comparative sequence analysis

.... Telomeresare DNA sequences found at the ends of chromosomes that play a key rolein controlling the life span of cells. With every cell division,telomeres get a bit shorter until eventually they become so short thatthe enzymes that copy DNA for cell division no longer work properly andthe cell stops dividing. ...

Found: Missing sequence of the human Y chromosome

...o sequences on exactly half (11 of22) of the other chromosomes in the human genome, including thepericentromeric ...ation ofpericentromeric regions of the acrocentric chromosomes in the currenthuman genome sequence," Rappold pointed out.The current study was designed as part of ...

Enzyme shown to help protect genomic stability

...ty, particularly in the regions at the ends of the chromosomes known as telomeres, has been linked to aging in humans and an elevated risk for aging-related diseases, the most prominent of which is cancer. For this reason, insights into the mechanisms of gene silencing could provide important guideposts for new ...

Needling Chromosomes Reveals Cell Division Secret

By impaling individual chromosomes with glassneedles one thousandth the diameter of a human hair, a Duke Universitygraduate student has tested their "stickiness" to one another duringcell division. Her uncanny surgical skills have added a piece to thelarge and intricate puzzle of how ...

Protein Packages Found To Activate Genes; May Be What Regulates Development And Disease

... complex analysis of packaging of two entire human chromosomes was done for the first time. Besides Bernstein, t...s" that rapidly scan millions of small sections of chromosomes to detect gene activity. But the scanning results left them with a huge amount of data, and the daun...

New Study from Affymetrix Laboratories Points to Changing View of How Genome Works

...biochemical tests to scan the sequence of 10 human chromosomes -- one third of the human genome sequence -- and found that roughly 15 percent of the DNA sequence analyzed was transcribed; most sites of transcription were not located in areas associated with protein-coding genes. The team found many diverse kind...

Alcohol's effects on gene expression in the central nervous system

...xpression profiling has also been used to identify chromosomes and chromosomal regions that influence alcohol drinking and response to alcohol." # Intracranial self-administration of ethanol into the posterior ventral tegmental area (VTA) of alcohol-preferring rats produced results suggesting that the reinforci...

Scientists document complex genomic events leading to the birth of new genes

...ts; it formed from the fusion of two mid-sized ape chromosomes and is the only cytogenetic distinction separating humans from apes. At the molecular level, however, the differences among the species are much more complex. Bork's team systematically searched the complete genomic sequences from a broad range of t...

Circles Of DNA Might Help Predict Success Of Stem Cell Transplantation

...ns. The rings represent sections of DNA cut out of chromosomes during the mixing and matching of genes that are chosen to build a particular receptor. Each T cell uses the resulting combination of genes to make a receptor that lets the cell recognize a specific target. When stimulated to multiply, each of those ...

How the environment could be damaging men's reproductive health

...tio of sperm carrying the X or Y (sex determining) chromosomes and that they could be contributing towards male r...llutants (POPs) can affect the distribution of sex chromosomes in sperm, leading to a slight increase in the number of sperm bearing the Y chromosome Aleksander G...

Variation in women's X chromosomes may explain differences among individuals, between sexes

...rst comprehensive survey of gene activity in the X chromosomes of women has revealed an unexpected level of varia...he extensive variation in gene activity in the sex chromosomes means that, in essence, there is not one human genome, but two -- male and female. "We looked at th...

Advances in the characterisation of the oyster mushroom genes

... that are together and the lone one are located on chromosomes where there are also genes responsible for the breaking down of lignin. This is of great interest because lignin and cellulose are found together in nature. They are found together in wood and it would seem logical that the genes responsible for the ...

Key mechanism in genetic inheritance during cell division identified

...at are responsible for the faithful segregation of chromosomes during cell division. "In test tube experiments, ... place in vivo, it could be the mechanism by which chromosomes are kept segregated during mitosis." Nogales is one of the co-authors of a paper reporting the re...

New tumor-suppressor gene discovered

...netic-mapping techniques to study the mutant fly's chromosomes and identified a short segment of DNA on which a m...were able to introduce a normal mats gene into the chromosomes of flies whose mats gene was mutated," Lai explains. "We found that the line of flies with this addi...

Insight into DNA's 'weakest links' may yield clues to cancer biology

The chromosomes of mammals, including humans, contain regions that...u look at solid tumors in humans, you see that the chromosomes of cancer cells exhibit incredible instability," said Thomas Petes, Ph.D., chair of genetics and mic...

Novel gene-silencing nanoparticles shown to inhibit Ewing's sarcoma

...ow recognize that Ewing's sarcoma results when two chromosomes break and trade their genetic content in what's technically called a "translocation," activating the oncogene EWS-FLI1 which triggers the tumor growth characteristic for this cancer. In their experiment, siRNA was delivered to this growth-promoting ...

Biochemists report discovery of structure of major piece of telomerase; implications for cancer

...tain telomeres ?small pieces of DNA on the ends of chromosomes that act as protective caps -- allowing DNA ends to be copied completely when cells are replicated. This is the first major piece of telomerase for which the structure is known. Telomerase plays a key role in most cancers, and this work ultimately m...

Measuring Enzymes At End Of Cancer Pathway Predicts Outcome Of Tarceva, Taxol

...re with assembly of the spindle that pulls nuclear chromosomes apart during cell division, Ueno and his colleagues have recently reported that increased activity of CDK1 correlated with a cell's sensitivity to Taxol. The CDK enzyme plays a role in cell division, and researchers believe that it functions in part...

Report that delayed motherhood decreases life expectancy of mouse offspring

...maternal age in women, such as abnormal numbers of chromosomes in their children, are well known. However, other potential negative effects on offspring from delayed motherhood have been only anecdotal. In what the editors of Biology of Reproduction feel will be a controversial topic of discussion, a team of re...

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