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Tag: "chromosome" at biology news

Scientists detect probable genetic cause of some Parkinson's disease cases

...Parkinson'sdisease. It was isolated on a region of chromosome 12 called PARK8 byinvestigators who studied five families with a history of Parkinson'sdisease who lived in the Basque region of Spain and in England.In these new studies, the researchers sought to determine theprevalence of the genetic mutation in o...

Breakthrough Microarray-based Technology for the Study of Cancer

...,duplication and the translocation of DNA from one chromosome toanother, as cancer develops. Understanding these changes is key tounderstanding cancer progression as well as developing possibletherapies and prognostic and diagnostic tools."Genomic alterations leading to changes in the number of gene copiesprese...

Scientists seek answers on what activates deadly anthrax spores

...o determine how genetic information in the anthrax chromosome translates into a vast array of protein structures, Claiborne said. Once they know the structures, they may not only be able to provide new details on how anthrax develops, but also pick out structural vulnerabilities that are key to designing new th...

Found: Missing sequence of the human Y chromosome

...quences were still missing.The Y chromosome, a sex chromosome that is specific to the human male,has posed a particular challenge to researchers attempting to decodeits sequence. It contains an extraordinary abundance of repetitiveelements, including transposons and tandem arrays of satellitesequences. This hig...

Leukemia Drug Breakthrough Study In New England Journal Of Medicine

... this study, 91 percent of the MDS patients with a chromosome abnormality named 5q minus syndrome became transfusion independent. The defective 5q chromosome abnormality may be linked to other serious cancers, including leukemias and small cell lung cancer. ...

Solution to Pollution: New Bacteria Eats Toxic Waste

...s. They answered questions about the size of their chromosome and whether plasmids were present in the mycobacterium. “Putting together genomes tells us a lot about the history of the world and may even help us with its future,?said Joanne Hughes, a Utah State Biology professor. The Department of Energy will s...

Needling Chromosomes Reveals Cell Division Secret

...me polerather than to opposite poles. This creates chromosome imbalances thatcan lead to cancer or chromosomal abnormalitiesthat cause birthdefects."According to Nicklas, it was known that the two sister chromatidsadhered to one another and released at the appropriate time during celldivision. However, that und...

Protein Packages Found To Activate Genes; May Be What Regulates Development And Disease

...ological breakthrough Bernstein has been studying chromosome wrappings for five years as a postdoctoral researcher in the lab of Stuart Schreiber. Together they worked out techniques to examine the way genes are packaged in yeast. To go from yeast to humans required a technological breakthrough, however. "Mos...

Scientists document complex genomic events leading to the birth of new genes

...specific gene family that spans about 10% of human chromosome 2. Comprised of eight family members, the RGP gene...mates from the rest of the animal kingdom. Human chromosome 2 has always intrigued primate biologists; it formed from the fusion of two mid-sized ape chromosome...

How the environment could be damaging men's reproductive health

...ight increase in the number of sperm bearing the Y chromosome Aleksander Giwercman, professor of andrology at t...ically significant increase in the proportion of Y chromosome bearing sperm in semen, and that age, smoking and hormone levels had no effect. "When we compared t...

Variation in women's X chromosomes may explain differences among individuals, between sexes

...have been lost over evolutionary time, leaving the chromosome with fewer than 100 functional genes. In contrast, the X chromosome -- present in at least one copy in both sexes -- encodes more than 1,000. More than 45 years ago, r...

Key mechanism in genetic inheritance during cell division identified

... Wong with UC Berkeley. Says Barnes, "Mistakes in chromosome segregation during mitosis contribute to cancer an...y so that they can segregate a single copy of each chromosome to each daughter cell. After which, the microtubules again disassemble and reform back into skeletal...

Mouse gene shows new mechanism behind cardiac infarction in man

...panese research group, have scrutinised an area on chromosome 1 that is of demonstrable importance to the development of arteriosclerosis. The TNFSF4 gene was identified as the one responsible, as mice with mutations in this gene displayed a lower degree of atherosclerosis, while mice with more active variants ...

Chromosome Deletion Predicts Aggressive Neuroblastoma

When genes are deleted on a particular section of chromosome 11, the result is an aggressive form of the childh...plified MYCN. "The deletion of genetic material on chromosome 11 may account for a significant percentage of these high-risk neuroblastomas," said Dr. Attiyeh. I...

Tendency to hair loss inherited from the mother

...lies on the x chromosome. Men always inherit the x chromosome from their mother. In many cases men therefore take after their grandfather on their mother's side rather than their father. However, this defect is not simply caused by one gene: "We have indications that other genes are involved which are independe...

Mother birds increase progesterone to hatch females

...fspring. In birds, however, it is the female's sex chromosome that determines offspring sex. Now, Cornell University researchers think they understand the mechanism that several bird species use to bias the sex ratios of their offspring toward female. By experimenting with domestic chickens, they have determin...

15-year hunt finds cause of pseudothalidomide syndrome

... we were collecting samples and characterizing the chromosome problem in cells from people with Roberts syndrome... Colombian families' syndrome to a large region of chromosome 8. In The Netherlands, a post-9/11 detour, he added to his analysis samples from Turkish and Italian...

Scientists analyze chromosomes 2 and 4

...uman genome and uncovered more evidence that human chromosome 2 arose from the fusion of two ancestral ape chrom...the second largest human chromosome, trailing only chromosome 1 in size. It is also home to the gene with the longest known, protein-coding sequence ?a 280,000 ba...

Researchers pioneer new gene therapy technique using natural repair process

...rly rare event that occurs when DNA strands of one chromosome break, creating a damaged section. Cells have two copies of nearly every chromosome (one each from the mother and father) and they must duplicate these during cell division so that the...

Natural tumor suppressor in body discovered by UCSD medical researchers

..., San Diego (UCSD) School of Medicine. Located on chromosome 18 and called PH domain Leucine-rich repeat Protein Phosphatase (PHLPP, pronounced "flip"), the tumor suppressor is described in the April 1, 2005 issue of the journal Molecular Cell. The scientists demonstrated that PHLPP deletes a phosphate molecul...

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