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Tag: "chromosomal" at biology news

Baumann Lab defines proteins that distinguish chromosome ends from DNA double-strand breaks

...cientific Director. "Genomic instability and gross chromosomal rearrangements are a hallmark of cancer cells. The mechanisms that initiate and drive these events are only poorly understood, but it is widely accepted that loss of chromosome end protection can initiate genomic instability through bridge-breakage-f...

Synthetic peptide targets latent papilloma virus infections

...rystal structure of the site where E2 binds to the chromosomal proteins, which are called Brd4. This not only allowed for the development of the peptide, but should make it easier for drug developers to design a molecule that can nudge Brd4 aside so as to bind and block the action of E2. Botchan, who has studi...

Common gene version optimizes thinking -- but with a possible downside

...ansmitter that it works through, dopamine, and the chromosomal site of its gene have been implicated in schizophrenia. "Although several groups have looked for possible clinical relevance of DARPP-32, they have not met with great success," noted Greengard. "This study shows a strong connection between this m...

MicroRNAs as tumor suppressors

... hysterectomies in the Western world." Studying chromosomal HMGA2 translocations that are associated with huma...esses its expression in the cell cytosol. However, chromosomal breaks that shorten the 3?end of the HMGA2 transcript, and prevent let-7 binding, result in aberrant...

Mosquito genes explain response to climate change

...rchers studying mosquitoes have produced the first chromosomal map that shows regions of chromosomes that activat...e just as there are in plants and animals." The chromosomal map for the mosquito Wyeomyia smithii, which develop within the carnivorous leaves of pitcher plants...

MicroRNAs can be tumor suppressors

... hysterectomies in the Western world." Studying chromosomal HMGA2 translocations that are associated with huma...esses its expression in the cell cytosol. However, chromosomal breaks that shorten the 3?end of the HMGA2 transcript,and prevent let-7 binding, result in aberrantl...

CSHL research ties harmless viruses to cancer

...link viruses that have been considered harmless to chromosomal instability (CIN) and cancer. "If the model that we propose is correct, protecting the body against viruses, or preventing the cell fusion that they cause may decrease the frequency of cancers and prevent their progression," said CSHL’s lead investi...

Scientists identify a candidate gene for osteoporosis

...expression in mice with higher BMD. The analogous chromosomal region has also been shown to influence osteoporosis in humans. The protein encoded by DARC binds to chemokines—or small signaling proteins—that are involved in osteoclast formation. Osteoclasts break down bone in a process called bone resorp...

Novel laboratory technique nudges genes into activity

...icately balanced mixture of proteins that surround chromosomal DNA, proteins that control whether genes are turned on or off. Dr. David Corey, professor of pharmacology and the paper’s senior author, said the results are significant because they demonstrate the most effective and consistent method to date fo...

Chromosomal microarray analysis proves accurate

...e started to use a new gene-chip technology called chromosomal microarray analysis to look for potential genetic ...ldren with various disabilities where the previous chromosomal testing did not. This study involved two versions of the test, and the newer version was more succes...

Gladstone investigators identify a new protective action for the powerful anti-HIV factor, APOBEC3G

...cation and movement of these retro-elements to new chromosomal sites with potentially damaging effect involves co... into DNA and inserting the retro-element at a new chromosomal site. Understanding A3G's role in activated CD4 T cells could lead to a new strategy against HIV....

Neuron cell stickiness may hold key to evolution of the human brain

...leotide insertions, deletions or duplications, and chromosomal rearrangements." Added Rubin, "In hindsight the results of our study make sense since our cognitive abilities are clearly one of the most distinct of all human attributes and we would expect these abilities to result from human-specific aspects...

'Failed' experiment yields a biocontrol agent that doesn't trigger antibiotic resistance

...are circular DNA molecules that are different from chromosomal DNA, the genetic material that encodes the instructions for life in all cells. Plasmids are small, non-chromosomal DNA molecules. They are common in bacteria. The genes in plasmids often encode information that confers some selective advantage to th...

Mapping the mouse genome

...ble information on how factors such as chromosome, chromosomal location, sex, and sequence composition are related to recombination rates--information that can improve our understanding of inheritance and inform future efforts to pinpoint the precise location of genes on individual chromosomes. ...

An advanced genetic diagnostic method for multiple myeloma

...ted the discovery of associations between specific chromosomal changes, and thus the description of a new classification of the disease. In addition, the technique of hybridization in situ with fluorescence allowed him to identify new recurrent genetic changes that are involved in the appearance of this patholog...

Regulating the nuclear architecture of the cell

...at" the genes, instead of by the DNA sequence. The chromosomal material known as heterochromatin mediates gene si...se genes, and finally to learn how they act on the chromosomal material. Steps along the path Several genes previously identified in Drosophila as having...

Mutant mouse provides insights into breast cancer

... term for an elevation in the number of mutations, chromosomal aberrations or loss of integrity of genetic information that occur when DNA replicates. While the Chaos3 mice appear normal in every way, the females are highly predisposed to mammary tumors. "It's known that most cancers, by the time you look at t...

Leading reason for corneal transplants comes into focus

...ften in women, to chromosome 18. "Finding this chromosomal locus is putting us in the right neighborhood to find culprit genes," says Gottsch. "Now we have to start knocking on every door." Gottsch is heartened by success with earlier Fuchs gene-hunting studies. The Hopkins group tracked down its first FC...

Pair of microRNA molecules controls major oncogene in most common leukemia

...essive B-CLL, and 32 samples of B-CLL exhibiting a chromosomal deletion, which makes it the most difficult type to treat. They found that TCL1 over-expression correlated with the two most aggressive forms of the cancer. To determine which miRNAs targeted TCL1, they used microRNA-microchips and elaborate computer...

Embryo tests give parents the choice

...-old embryo, which is then screened for a range of chromosomal abnormalities or specific gene mutations. Seemingly healthy embryos are implanted in the womb; others are discarded or frozen. The survey, which covered 186 out of 415 fertility clinics in the US, found that around two-thirds of PGD procedures were p...

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