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Tag: "characterizing" at biology news

Scientists document complex genomic events leading to the birth of new genes

...unctional divergence from RanBP2. Identifying and characterizing genes that are responsible for primate or human distinctiveness has been a major challenge to scientists. However, this work by Bork and his colleagues should further enable studies focused on the molecular basis for species specificity. "A thorough ...

15-year hunt finds cause of pseudothalidomide syndrome

...r years. "In 1989, we were collecting samples and characterizing the chromosome problem in cells from people with Roberts syndrome," Jabs remembers. "We knew it would be really important to find the gene, but it just wasn't practical at that time." A few years later, in 1995, two Colombian geneticists started the...

Scientists identify genes responsible for 'black rot' disease in vegetables

...e Center at Beijing) have focused their efforts on characterizing the genes responsible for Xcc pathogenicity. In their study published today, the investigators describe the identification of 75 different genes responsible for Xcc virulence. These genes appear to belong to 13 different functional categories or rela...

ORNL, UC Berkeley unravel real-world clues to Earth's mysteries

... Life program, which is focused on identifying and characterizing protein complexes, the molecular machines of life. "Most of the current work looks at single microbial organisms grown under controlled laboratory conditions, but the longer-term plans are to extend this work to real-world microbial communities -- t...

Olfactory system detects pheromones that control reproduction

...posure to water.Future studies will aim at further characterizing the network of connections from the olfactory system to LHRH neurons in many brain structures, said Dulac. Also, the researchers plan to explore how olfactory and vomeronasal neurons work together in mice to control reproductive behavior. Dulac said...

New U. of Colorado at Boulder flu chip may help combat future epidemics, pandemics

... and biochemistry department. Current methods for characterizing flu subtypes infecting patients take about four days. The Flu Chip is expected to be in wide use in laboratories within a year, said Rowlen, who has led the two-year CU-Boulder research effort. Rowlen, who is working on the Flu Chip development wit...

Environmental metagenomics diagnosing extreme environments, tapping opportunities for clean energy

...urces of energy." One of the systems that DOE JGI characterizing is the microbial community inhabiting the termite hindgut, among nature's most efficient bioreactors--capable of generating two liters of hydrogen from fermenting just one sheet of paper. Rubin will discuss these advances on a panel entitled "Biosp...

Supersized 'island' of resistance genes discovered in an infectious bacterium

... of the efficiency of the whole genome approach in characterizing new pathogens," said Jean-Michel Claverie, senior author of the report and Director of the Structural and Genomic Information Laboratory at CNRS. This bacterium acquires resistance genes quickly--just thirty years ago it was completely susceptible...

Molecular mechanism may explain how fevers spark seizures

...epsy beginning in 2001. Macdonald's group has been characterizing the functional defects of the mutant GABA-A receptors, offering insight into the mechanisms underlying those epilepsies. One of the common features in the families with mutations in the GABA-A receptor gamma subunit -- one of several protein "parts...

Where 'jumping genes' fear to tread

...f significant biological importance. Upon further characterizing the TFRs, they discovered that many (85%) overlapped at least one annotated gene and that almost all (94%) overlapped at least one known RNA transcript. In addition, the TFRs were enriched in microRNAs, in genes that encode proteins with putative DN...

DOE JGI sequences, releases genome of symbiotic tree fungus

...tify the factors involved in biomass production by characterizing the changes that occur between the two genomes as the tree and the fungus collaborate to generate biomass. It also helps us to understand the interaction between these two symbionts within the context of the changing global climate." "Characterizat...

NYU algorithm enhances ability to detect cancer genes

... the gene-chip consists of many "probes"--each one characterizing an almost unique word and its location in the already-sequenced human genome--by combining these probe-measurements, one can estimate if an important genomic segment is missing. By analogy, this process is akin to guessing if a new edition of a book ...

NAU researchers chirping over discovery of new cricket genus

...explained. "We are still in the formative phase of characterizing the ecological communities of these systems as well as understanding how these ecosystems function," he said. "We have much to learn." Wynne, an assistant curator with the Colorado Plateau Museum of Arthropod Biodiversity, has two cave projects unde...

With record resolution and sensitivity, tool images how life organizes in a cell membrane

...als scientists and engineers covet the machine for characterizing hard materials, such as rocks, space dust, polymers and nanoelectronics. But in the last five years, biologists have become interested in employing it to characterize components of biological samples on a length scale of 100 nanometers or less. ''Th...

International team analyzes human genetic variation in key immune region

... genes may offer a more economical alternative for characterizing the most common genetic variants in the region than standard HLA typing methods. Nearly three-quarters of the DNA samples that the scientists analyzed had been previously examined as part of the International Haplotype Map ("HapMap") Project, a wo...

Pair of microRNA molecules controls major oncogene in most common leukemia

... Researchers at Ohio State have been leaders in characterizing the role of miRNAs in cancer development. These small molecules are single-stranded RNA molecules that can act either as tumor suppressors or oncogenes. They can block transcription of genes by stopping them from producing messenger RNA or can inhibi...

Transplanted photoreceptor precursor cells restore visual function in mice with retinal degeneration

...in humans. The next wave of research will focus on characterizing the mechanisms that generate photoreceptor precursors from stem cells. Swaroop believes the research has potential for developing therapies for people with retinal and macular degenerative diseases that are untreatable today. The Swaroop resear...

New molecular pathway could reveal how cells stick together

...erplay between MMPs and ninjurin, with the goal of characterizing this previously unknown pathway by which cells signal to each other. Ninjurin is anchored to the surface of cells, but after being cut by MMP, a ninjurin segment travels to adjacent cells and signals them to alter their adhesive state. Page-McCaw ...

Mine runoff continues to provide clues to microbial diversification

... Life program, which is focused on identifying and characterizing the molecular machines of life. This study helps extend the initial studies of microbial isolates growth in carefully controlled laboratory settings to more real-world complicated microbial communities. ...

Study shows isolation of stem cells may lead to a treatment for hearing loss

...ility to form ‘stem cell?spheres in culture and by characterizing these cells in terms of neural and hair cell development using a panel of stem cell development and hair cell markers. The formation of spheres from early postnatal cochlear tissues and their expression of a wide range of developmental markers uniqu...

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