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Tag: "channels" at biology news

Detecting cold, feeling pain: Study reveals why menthol feels fresh

...as discovered are members of the TRP family of ion channels expressed on sensory neurons. The latest finding adds to the evidence, says Julius, that TRP channels are the principal transducers of thermal stimuli in the mammalian periphery nervous system. ...

Role of noise in neurons

...g information. They show that noise effects in ion channels in the brain are much larger than previously assum...d by the probabilistic nature of voltage-gated ion channels (channel noise). Channel noise destroys information in the AP, and they conclude that these effects ...

Slowing the racing heart

... "The enzyme works through calcium and potassium channels that we know to be key players in the generation and regulation of the pacemaker activity," said Ke. "Although adrenaline and other mechanisms that accelerate the heart rate have been well studied, mechanisms that might act as a brake are poorly u...

Iowa State scientists demonstrate first use of nanotechnology to enter plant cells

...es have arrays of independent porous channels. The channels form a honeycomb-like structure that can be filled with chemicals or molecules. "One gram of this kind of material can have a total surface area of a football field, making it possible to carry a large payload," Trewyn said. Lin’s nanoparticle ...

Left-right wiring determined by neural communication in the embryonic worm

...stem of gap junctions -- "broadband" communication channels through which cells pass many kinds of molecules and electrical signals -- that allow growing neurons on the left and right to communicate with each other, a system that dissolves as the worm develops. Every neuron in the adult C. elegans has been...

Discovery of 'master switch' for the communication process between chloroplast and nuclei of plants

...in plants converge on a single pathway, which then channels the information to the nucleus. The study was part of a collaborative effort led by Joanne Chory, professor and director of the Plant Biology Laboratory at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolla, Calif., and investigator with the Howar...

Putting an old drug to a new use

...ill unknown. Nifedipine is known to block membrane channels that control Ca2+ influx into cells, but if it exerts its effect on iron transport indirectly by changing Ca2+ levels in the cell or by binding directly to DMT-1 in liver and kidney still needs to be determined. "Understanding the exact molecular ...

Protein overexpression at heart of heart failure

...h the pore subunit of the voltage-dependent L-type channels (L-VDCC), but their role in heart failure is still...vity of single ventricular L-VDCC, rendering these channels phenotypically identical to human and mouse heart failure. The authors conclude that electrical r...

Biologists prove critical step in membrane fusion

...membrane must fuse with another membrane, creating channels packages can pass through. This process, known as membrane fusion, is fundamental to health and disease. It occurs at fertilization and is particularly critical to keep hormones circulating and brain cells firing. Membrane fusion is also how HIV and...

Applied scientists create wrinkled 'skin' on polymers

..."S" shapes, circular patterns, and long horizontal channels akin to the repeating tines of a closed zipper. "Irradiation by the ion beam alters the chemical composition of the polymer close to its surface and forms a thin stiff skin which wants to expand," explains Vaziri. "The consequent mismatch between ...

Brain networks strengthened by closing ion channels

...nt study found that brain cells in PFC contain ion channels called hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (HCN) that reside on dendritic spines, the tiny protrusions on neurons that are specialized for rece...

The connector rotation hypothesis? Phage do not pack their DNA by rotation

...corded the pattern of fluorescence produced in two channels at right angles to one other. If the connectors... a sine wave-like fluctuation in intensity in both channels with a phase shift of 90 degrees. They did not see the sine waves, and mathematical analysis of the ...

Microfluidic chip helps solve cellular mating puzzle

...er chip, their device consists of a series of tiny channels and chambers, some 20 times smaller than the diameter of human hair. Within the chip, computer-controlled fluid pressure and microscopic valves allow the researchers to isolate and conduct experiments on extremely small clusters of cells. "The level ...

Scripps Research study reveals new activation mechanism for pain sensing channel

...perty. "Generally, compounds that activate ion channels bind in a lock-and-key mechanism that is readily r...nique. For example, compounds that activate an ion channels through a lock-and-key mechanism have structural similarity. TRPA1 activators have no structural sim...

Anti-dandruff compound may help fight epilepsy

... involved chemically shaving off all the potassium channels on the cell surface and forcing the cells to make ... allow more potassium flow. “If you think of these channels as doors on the cell’s surface,?Li says, “then ZnPy made this door both easier to open and stay open...

Swimming 'to the left' gets bacteria upstream, and may promote infection

...p various flow patterns to observe the bacteria in channels that were only 150 or 300 microns wide and between 50 and 450 microns deep. They were able to observe how the bacteria moved at a wide range of flow rates ?between 0.05 and 20 microliters per minute. ...

NHGRI aims to make DNA sequencing faster, more cost effective

.... The goal of this group is to fabricate nanoscale channels in which single molecules of DNA will pass between nano-electrodes that are less than 2 nanometers apart, to measure an electric current that will identify individual bases. Xiaohua Huang, Ph.D., University of California, San Diego, La Jolla,$275,...

Tarantula venom and chili peppers target same pain sensor

...ns are incredibly useful for understanding how ion channels of the nervous system work. They give us clues as to how specific activators or blockers on these channels can be designed to treat persistent pain ?from arthritis, bladder infections, or other diseases." ...

The power of one: A simpler, cheaper method for cell fusion

...possible." Lu's device consists of fluid-filled channels inside a tiny microchip. Prior to fusion, cells ar...wards the only exit, which is a miniscule gap that channels electricity from one pole to the other. Passing through this narrow section, cells are subjected to ...

Origin of inherited pain disorder pinpointed

...is caused by specific mutations in porelike sodium channels in peripheral nerve cells—a discovery that they sa...s in a nerve cell caused by a nerve impulse, these channels snap open, allowing sodium to flow across the cell membrane, further propagating the nerve impulse. ...

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