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Tag: "chain" at biology news

A gene's first 'kiss' sets off that affair known as puberty

...eleasing hormone (GnRH) is secreted and sets off a chain reaction of chemical messages. Inside the hypothalamus, nerve cells release GnRH in a 'round-the-clock,' pulsatile fashion. With each secretion, the pituitary gland is stimulated to secrete its own messengers, lutenizing hormone (LH) and follicle-sti...

Man and mouse share genome structures

...round bundles of histone proteins, and resembles a chain of beads which is then compressed into a working chromosome. Chemical tags placed on the histones alter the way chromatin is organized, thus allowing the right combination of genes to be turned on. In their study, the researchers analyzed the chroma...

Scientists ID molecular 'switch' in liver that triggers harmful effects of saturated and trans fats

...f triglycerides and cholesterol, but the molecular chain of events from eating fats to the buildup of cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood were unknown. "What we have found is a missing link, a mechanism by which saturated fats and trans fats can do their dirty work," said Spiegelman, who carries ou...

Learning to fight an adversary that won't stay down

...m. Innovations such as highly efficient polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have made it possible to identify and study the many genes responsible for antibiotic resistance in hospitals and the environment. "What has been found is that there are more antibiotic resistance genes around than we ever realized," ...

Researchers reveal the infectious impact of salmon farms on wild salmon

...d the direct transmission. This study captures the chain of events." "Part of the contentious debate about sea lice is that there hasn't been this level of precision in the sampling and modeling," says coauthor Mark Lewis, a mathematical ecologist from the University of Alberta known for his work on West ...

Color-blind method opens new doors in DNA sequencing

...king series of bacterial cloning and/or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) steps, reduce its length to a manageable size of thousands of nucleotides. Using natural replicating enzymes, the DNA is tagged with four fluorescent dyes, each corresponding to a particular nucleotide. This tagging process, called San...

NYC's First Rapid HIV Drug-resistant AIDS Case Prompts Call to Step Up HIV Prevention

...al health services -- if we are to truly break the chain of infection through effective prevention, testing and treatment efforts." ...

Researchers develop rapid diagnostic tool for pathogen identification

...built on an established method known as polymerase chain reaction that allows amplification of genetic sequences and on a technology previously used for DNA sequencing and detection of genetic polymorphisms. Genetic probes for pathogens were coupled to markers known as mass codes. After amplification, inco...

Multiple Campylobacter Genomes Sequenced

...s to monitor and control Campylobacter in the food chain and in human infection. ...

Advances in the characterisation of the oyster mushroom genes

...its of cellobiose from either end of the cellulose chain and the b-glucosidases hydrolyse the cellobiose molecules, producing glucose as end product. In her PhD thesis Arantza Eizmendi Goikoetxea has analysed the activity of one of these types of enzymes: the cellobiohydrolases. To this end, she cloned, i...

HIV-1 spread through six transmission lines in the UK

...980s. The average number of infections across each chain was 445, approximately 2.5% of the infected popula...ctions respectively. The most recent transmission chain identified by the study shows a faster doubling time in 2003 than the other five. Current surveillan...

Gray wolves maintain the food chain in winter

... Wilmers and Getz's study shows that a robust food chain - including this still embattled top predator - may be even more important as ecological conditions deteriorate. ### Citation: Wilmers CC, Getz WM (2005) Gray wolves as climate change buffers in Yellowstone. PLoS Biol 3(4): e92. ...

Researchers make gains in understanding antibiotic resistance

...in the ribosome, through which the growing peptide chain moves during synthesis. This tunnel is normally blocked by macrolide antibiotics. In the mutant form, the tunnel widens, which may explain why macrolide antibiotics are no longer effective. According to Steitz, insights about the ribosomal origins o...

Master gene controls healing of skin in fruit flies and mammals

...head as the master gene that initiates the genetic chain reaction that results in cuticle repair. Wounds in mutant flies that lack the grainyhead gene fail to heal. "The genes involved in cuticle repair are activated very quickly, within 30 minutes after injury," said Joseph Pearson, a graduate student wo...

Stealth Worms May Improve Insect Pest Control

...ugh molecular screening, including PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and DNA sequence analysis. The researchers determine the nematode's temperature and moisture requirements, the insect hosts it colonizes and other characteristics. Lists of EPN evolutionary associations, called phylogenies, are assembled t...

Currents could disrupt ocean food chain

...e scientists predict ?the effect on the ocean food chain in the Atlantic and other oceans could be severe, ...rst to examine what would happen to the ocean food chain if such a disruption did take place. "Phytoplankton are the basis of the entire marine food web," S...

To Stop Evolution: New Way Of Fighting Antibiotic Resistance Demonstrated By Scripps Scientists

...rine proteases and works by cutting the amino acid chain of other proteins. Romesberg and his colleagues showed that LexA's action was necessary for the evolution of resistance to the antibiotics in vitro. The effect in vivo was dramatic. Blocking LexA in rodent models of E. coli infections halted the gro...

'Smart drug' targets deadly brain cancer

... Knowing that this protein is a key player in the chain of events that determines drug activity could be useful in screening patients to help determine the best candidates for the drug. Says Dr. Galanis, "This could allow us to customize drug administration to the patients most likely to benefit from it, ...

Researchers Identify Cause of Early Bird Sleep Disorder

...altering a single base-pair in the gene's long DNA chain is enough to change a person's sleep behavior. Evidence from tissue culture experiments with the second gene suggests the change causes a protein -- an enzyme called a kinase that is made by the gene - to be less active than normal. The lead author ...

Lipids get new comprehensive classification system

...ps are drawn on the right side and the hydrocarbon chain extends to the left. In the simplest case of the f...drawn on the right and the hydrophobic hydrocarbon chain is on the left. Another part of the classification system is a 12 digit identifier for each unique ...

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