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Tag: "cellular" at biology news

St. Jude study solves mystery of mammalian ears

...n outer hair cells have prestin, which drives this cellular contraction, or somatic motility. The contraction pulls the tufts of cilia downward, which maximizes the force of their vibration. In mammals, both the cilia and the cell itself vibrate. Thus far the question has been whether the cilia are the main e...

One species, many genomes

...l. Detailed analyses showed that genes for basic cellular functions such as protein production or gene regulation rarely suffer knockout hits. Genes that are important for the interaction with other organisms, on the other hand, such as those responsible for defense against pathogens or infections, are much...

Modeling the restless brain

...he brain to studying other complex systems such as cellular metabolism, the economy or global climate change. Models must be used to test theories and generate new insights into how the system works as a whole. And while technologies such as functional MRI allow scientists to measure some kinds of neural ...

Hormone helps mice 'hibernate,' survive starvation

... FGF21, triggered in starving mice by a specific cellular receptor that controls the use of fat as energy, s...r scientists examined potential molecular cues and cellular interactions at play during starvation and fasting. They focused on a nuclear receptor – a protei...

In mice, drug protects against diabetes and atherosclerosis

...xpressed in macrophages, which scavenge and digest cellular debris and microbes in the blood stream. The aP2 signals encourage macrophages to load up on cholesterol and become "foam cells" that adhere to artery walls, creating dangerous plaques that eventually may rupture and trigger a heart attack. In mice l...

Brain holds clues to bipolar disorder

...merous processes inside the body. Using animal and cellular models, Dr. Manji and colleagues at NIMH showed that disruptions in these pathways resulted in many of the core symptoms of bipolar disorder and explained many other observations about the disease. The findings suggest a new avenue for treating the u...

Breakthrough developments in rheumatoid arthritis reported

...rthritis patients in the world. Following the cellular pathway, it has been shown that PTPN22 influences the “trigger point” for activation of T-cells, immune cells that are normally called on to wage battle against infection. In autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, PTPN22 appears to put people...

Researchers shed light on mechanism of action used by anti-cancer drug

... a subcellular structure which plays a key role in cellular protein disposition. When stressed in this way, the cell responds to the protein load by reducing protein synthesis, increasing levels of protein chaperones, and by accelerating protein degradation. However, according to Grant, when ER stress exceeds...

Herpes virus hijacks DNA repair process

...replicating viral DNA for damaged or dysfunctional cellular DNA. "Viruses sometimes structure their own DNA differently than cellular DNA," Tarakanova notes. "Many of us thought that such differences might be triggering the DNA damage...

Exploring the dark matter of the genome

..., how the large-scale structure of genomes affects cellular processes. We hear too much about the 'post-genomic era' -- it's underappreciated that we don't understand the genome yet." Celniker agrees. "What we would like to see is a complete sequence of the fruit fly from telomere to telomere" -- that is,...

In nature, proteins sweep up nanoparticles

...te and entomb the bacteria or interfere with their cellular machinery. Think of it as trash pickup at the nanoscale. Regardless, the process stops the spread of metal nanoparticles in natural environments, which is reason enough to explore it further. “If we understand what causes nanoparticles to aggregat...

Staphylococcus aureus hides out in cells

...thelial cells becomes strictly controlled to limit cellular damage. Mechanisms that helped the bacteria to survive and/or multiply, including metabolic and energy production functions, then resumed. Although most of the bacteria had died by about four days as a result of antibiotic treatment, the team still f...

Weizmann Institute scientists develop a general 'control switch' for protein activity

... research efforts led by scientists worldwide, the cellular function of numerous proteins is still unknown. To reveal this function, scientists perform various genetic manipulations to increase or, conversely, decrease the production of a certain protein, but existing manipulations of this sort are complicate...

Researchers discover 'acquired' DNA key to certain bacterial infection

...tes are cells that engulf and digest pathogens and cellular debris, and in humans serve as the body’s initial immune response. The researchers did not find a similar island of acquired genetic material in two similar bacteria, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, which causes Joh...

Researchers identify protein pathway involved in Parkinson disease development

... These new findings show how the mutations affect cellular function and could provide a target for drug therapies to treat the disease. The research by a team of Emory University scientists will be published June 18 in the Public Library of Science Biology (PLoS Biology) journal. Parkinson disease is a d...

Surprising origin of cell's internal highways

...al Center reveal a surprising new origin for these cellular "highways." In the June issue of Developmental Cel...rtments that sorts and ships proteins out to their cellular destinations -- is the source of a particular subset of these microscopic fibers. The findings point...

A first -- Hebrew University scientist observes brain cell development in 'real time'

..., or nerve cells, develop from an undifferentiated cellular sphere into a rich and complex cell. This has great significance for the future of brain research, said Dr. Mizrahi, since "the structural and functional complexity of nerve cells remains one of the biggest mysteries of neuroscience, and we now have ...

How plague-causing bacteria disarm host defense

...d by YpkA, which sets up a roadblock along several cellular pathways that Gq uses to deliver the alarm," said lead author Lorena Navarro, Ph.D., post-doctoral researcher in the lab of the study's principle investigator, Jack E. Dixon, Ph.D., professor of Pharmacology and Cellular and Molecular Medicine at th...

Adult stem cells from human cord umbilical cord blood successfully engineered to make insulin

...er these cells to become islets of Langerhans, the cellular masses that produce the hormone insulin, which allows the body to utilize sugar, synthesize proteins and store neutral fats, or lipids. "But we’re a long way from that," Denner warned. Denner said this research, which reflects a fruitful collabor...

Mice with a migraine show signs of brain damage

...raine lost up to three-quarters of these important cellular components. Ironically, the team found that dur... restore the chemical balance and to resume normal cellular function, using so much oxygen, that the brain simply couldn’t keep up with the demand. “Basicall...

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