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Tag: "catalytic" at biology news

Plastic that grows on trees

...ve this, they experimented with a novel non-acidic catalytic system containing metal chloride catalysts in a so... hydrogen-hydroxyl position-switch that allows the catalytic conversion was verified by nuclear magnetic resonance performed at the William R. Wiley Environmenta...

Study of protein folds offers insight into metabolic evolution

...the observation that RNA still retains many of its catalytic capabilities, including the ability to make proteins. Gradually, according to this theory, proteins began taking over some of the original functions of RNA. "The most ancient (protein) molecules were involved in the interconversion of nucleotides....

Proteasome activator enhances survival of Huntington's disease neuronal model cells

...thesized that enhancing UPS function would improve catalytic degradation of abnormal proteins in HD. We first genetically engineered proteasome activators involved in either non-ubiquitinated protein degradation pathways (PA28ƒ×) or subunits of PA700, the 26S proteasome ubiquitinated pathway (S5a) into transdu...

Loss of a universal tRNA feature reported

... contributions to protein structure as well as the catalytic mechanisms of enzymes and must be reliably incorporated during the process of translation. Until now, bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic tRNAs have always been found with an extra guanylate residue at the 5' end of the tRNA molecule. The scientis...

U of M researchers invent 'flashy' new process to turn soy oil, glucose into hydrogen

...and away from water and carbon "gunk." Because the catalytic disk is porous, the syngas passes through it and is collected downstream in the tube. No external heat is needed, because the chemical reactions that produce syngas release enough heat to break up subsequent molecules of oil or sugar. "The secret i...

NHGRI aims to make DNA sequencing faster, more cost effective

...uencing-by-synthesis. This method uses the natural catalytic cycle of DNA polymerase to capture just a single DNA base on an immobilized primer/template. A fluorescence scanner will be used to scan and identify hundreds of thousands of molecules at once. Then the cycle will be repeated. This phased award wil...

Uniform tungsten trimers stand and deliver

...d slightly, holding forth the potential to execute catalytic reactions. The nanostructures constitute a new model system, a simplified version of a catalyst that would be used in an application. Such models reveal to chemists the exact structure and reaction mechanisms of metal oxides. Developed by research...

Study offers innovative profile of enzyme that aids tumor growth

.... "Our hypothesis was that the determination of catalytic activities for enzymes like KIAA1363 could be done directly in living systems through the integrated application of profiling technologies that survey both the enzymatic proteome and its primary biochemical output, the metabolome," Cravatt said. ...

Methane-belching bugs inspire a new theory of the origin of life on Earth

...ive life forms themselves, perhaps associated with catalytic iron and sulfur minerals, gave rise to the first simple biological molecules. The obstacles to this theory are the large number of steps in the biochemical cycles that have been suggested, and the staggering structural complexity of the only known en...

Scientists take 'snapshots' of enzyme action

... step-by-step snapshots of different stages of the catalytic action," Swaminathan says, "and reveal a mechanism that is different from what had been known about this process." Previously, it had been believed that all the "players" -- the enzyme, cofactor, and substrate -- came together at a particular time t...

Researchers unveil strategy for creating actively-programmed anti-cancer molecules

...small cell-targeting molecules and a non-targeting catalytic monoclonal aldolase antibody in a novel self-assem...to link small synthetic molecules and a well-known catalytic monoclonal antibody, mAb38C2, through chemical bonding, a modification that resulted in the reprogra...

Finding a better way to make biodiesel

...ixed oxide catalyst that has both acidic and basic catalytic sites. Acidic catalysts on the particle can convert the free fatty acids to biodiesel while basic catalysts can convert the oils into fuel. And the particles themselves are environmentally safe because they are made of calcium and sand. "We're exci...

High resolution 'snapshots' detail dynamics of a cocaine antibody

...ely impaired by high concentrations of the drug. A catalytic monoclonal antibody such as 7A1, on the other hand...ith high binding ability, but also with sufficient catalytic activity to metabolize cocaine, would have potentially enhanced therapeutic effects, Zhu said. This ...

'Accelerated evolution' converts RNA enzyme to DNA enzyme in vitro

...pondence of the double helix pairing, transferring catalytic function is significantly more difficult because f...g early life on earth both genetic information and catalytic function were thought to reside only in RNA. In our study, the evolutionary transition from an RNA t...

New discovery: If it weren't for this enzyme, decomposing pesticide would take millennia

...metabolism," Wolfenden said. "The apparently novel catalytic activity of the enzyme may be a lucky side reaction of an enzyme that evolved to act on some natural substance yet to be identified." Horvat carried out the work in Wolfenden's laboratory by analyzing what happened to the pesticide's residue at vari...

Plants reveal a secret and bring researchers nearer a cleaner future

...um atoms that are known to be at the centre of the catalytic reaction. Five intermediate states have been proposed in the process of photosynthesis - a cycle known as "Kok cycle"- but only four had been proved until recently. With the help of the ESRF, scientists have been able to identify the missing state, w...

Green diesel: New process makes liquid transportation fuel from plants

...r James Dumesic and colleagues detail a four-phase catalytic reactor in which corn and other biomass-derived carbohydrates can be converted to sulfur-free liquid alkanes resulting in an ideal additive for diesel transportation fuel. Co-researchers include chemical and biological engineering graduate students G...

Study finds adult stem cells can replicate

...ffect integrin rearrangement is dependent on their catalytic activity, and that's an ability that can be taken away from them." Pham suspects this class of proteases may also be making significant contributions to other autoimmune and inflammatory conditions besides arthritis. She plans further studies to inv...

Enzyme's newly discovered role may make it target for arthritis treatment

...ffect integrin rearrangement is dependent on their catalytic activity, and that's an ability that can be taken away from them." Pham suspects this class of proteases may also be making significant contributions to other autoimmune and inflammatory conditions besides arthritis. She plans further studies to inv...

Supercomputers to focus brains on AIDS dilemma

...mon's group. These simulations have focused on the catalytic domain of HIV-1 integrase, and relied on the large...structure of a complex between the HIV-1 integrase catalytic domain and an inhibitor pointed to the existence of only one site where inhibitors could bind. These...

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