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Tag: "case" at biology news

Carnegie Mellon scientists find key HIV protein makes cell membranes bend more easily

... host cells into virus-producing factories. In the case of HIV, a molecule called gp120 initially helps the virus lock onto its host T cell, a cell critical for maintaining immunity. Another protein — gp41 — then enables HIV to penetrate a T-cell membrane. Fusion takes place specifically through a short s...

Columbine flowers develop long nectar spurs in response to pollinators

...sion of integrative organismal systems. "In the case of these flowers, changes appear to happen relatively rapidly in response to changes in pollinators," said Zamer....

ASU research shows connection between testosterone, dietary antioxidants and bird coloration

...nship to the birds’ colors and health. “In the case of the zebra finch, the cost is in the pigments – having enough of them to develop a red beak and enough to combat testosterone, which you also need to be red.” McGraw and Ardia describe their findings in “Do carotenoids buffer testosterone-induce...

Microbes at work cleaning up the environment

...nd can redissolve if conditions change. In the case of the mine bacteria, the researchers showed that the bacteria are causing the nanoparticle aggregation, thereby protecting themselves. When the metal nanoparticles aggregate, they don’t move as easily and are less soluble. Using secondary ion mas...

In nature, proteins sweep up nanoparticles

...ironment, it readily combines with metals, in this case zinc, to form nano-sized biominerals that measure about one-billionth of a meter in diameter. The team examined the biofilm using transmission electron microscopy at Berkeley Lab’s National Center for Electron Microscopy, a national user facility ...

Fat fish put obesity on the hook

... biology – zoology physiology and genetics in this case – can be brought to bear on human problems.” According the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the prevalence of overweight and obesity have risen steadily over the past 30 years. Among adults aged 20–74 years the prevalence of obes...

Treating HIV in war zones -- Public health emergencies need rapid advice from WHO

...extra emergency drug supplies that can be taken in case of program interruption. Stockpiling emergency supplies of ART and securing them against vandals and looters Distributing clinics widely throughout the treatment area, thus reducing travel requirements and making it easier and safer for staff and...

Avian influenza survivors' antibodies effective at neutralising H5N1 strain

...nd to have spread from the lungs; this was not the case in those who survived. "We have shown that this technique can work to prevent and neutralise infection by the H5N1 'bird flu' virus in mice," says Dr Cameron Simmons, a Wellcome Trust researcher at the Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Vie...

How brain pacemakers erase diseased messages

...mptoms can vary widely from day to day. "In the case of tremor, physicians can alter the setting until they see the symptoms stop," Grill said. "You don't have to know how it's really working. "In a condition like epilepsy, however, it's extremely unlikely that a person would have a seizure in the d...

Detecting cold, feeling pain: Study reveals why menthol feels fresh

...experiences intense stimuli – temperature, in this case – that can cause pain. As such, the receptor – known as menthol receptor TRPM8 -- provides a target for studying acute and chronic pain, as can result from inflammatory or nerve injury, the researchers say, and a potential new target for treating...

An 'elegant' idea proves its worth 25 years later

...ogen yields ammonia, which is poisonous and in the case of urea cycle disorders, causes brain damage, retardation, coma and even death. Despite the immediate clinical success of the treatment, the drug combination was finally approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration only in 2005. Brusilow,...

Why do oysters choose to live where they could be eaten?

...al to future reproductive success. However, in the case of oyster larvae, the selection of a place to call home can be a life or death decision. According to an article in the May edition of Ecological Monographs, a team of scientists has found that despite the risk of being eaten by cannibalistic adults...

How to steer a moving cell

...standing of what directs cell migration or, in the case of cancer cells and inflammation, cause cells to migrate where they normally wouldn’t. "The ability to spatially organize specific groups of signaling proteins to the front or back of the cell is what drives cell polarization and directional move...

Survival of the rarest: Fruit flies shed light on the evolution of behavior

...riants such as these are common in nature. "In the case of fruit flies, one variant encourages the survival of the other. In essence, there is not one best type of fly," he says. If this process is common in nature, it may offer one explanation for why individuals, in general, vary so much from one to ano...

Dealing deadly cancers a knockout punch

...ientific evidence is helping to build a compelling case for oncolytic viruses as a first-line and adjunctive treatment for many cancers. Reovirus, a non-pathogenic virus under development at Calgary, Alberta-based Oncolytics Biotech, has shown powerful anti-cancer activity against cultured tumor cells...

Study shows dramatic increase in Caesarean sections

...ffective when applied to an appropriately selected case can have significant adverse effects when applied to a low risk population. "Caesareans are not without risk for mothers or babies, and should be based on solid medical reasons to ensure the best outcome." In the most recent five year period, ...

A new portable biosensor detects traces of contaminants in food more quickly and cheaply

...terial infections in domestic animals, such as the case of sulphanilamides in cattle, and even those used ...s can be done more quickly and cheaply than is the case of the chromatographs which are used today in food safety laboratories. As regards the detection of ...

Newly identified mechanism for silencing genes points to possible anti-cancer strategies

...in human cells and in worms and found it to be the case in both. Interestingly, this not only supported our hypothesis, but to see it in such different organisms also suggested that the mechanism involved has long been conserved in evolution." ...

Intelligent materials to regenerate bone tissue

...a Biopharma S.A. are also participating. In the case of substantial deterioration of the bone, it may be necessary for the implant to provide both functional and physiological properties of the damaged item. Given this hypothesis, the bone implants have to comply with a series of requisites capable of ...

Biodegradable microspheres deliver time release vaccines, stimulate different immune response

...antibodies that block entry into the cell. In the case of some diseases, such as malaria or tuberculosis, antibody vaccines just aren't effective," says Jenny Wilson-Welder, a lead researcher on the study. Wilson-Welder and her colleagues initially began their research looking for a way to eliminate t...

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