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Tag: "breaks" at biology news

Researchers track how spores break out of dormant state

...rmination process, it is still unclear how a spore breaks out of its dormant state. But a new in vitro study of single germinating Bacillus atrophaeus spores details how the spore coat structures break down, and it shows with unprecedented resolution how the new bacterium emerges from the disintegrating ...

Loss of stem cells correlates with premature aging in animal study

... their DNA, and multiple divisions lead to natural breaks in DNA. But when these stem cells are needed, their progeny can rapidly divide and are able to replenish the tissue with new cells. Brown explains that in the current study the mouse cells without ATR had an overwhelming amount of DNA damage and ...

Study shows lizard moms dress their children for success

...o hide in the grass and need a barred pattern that breaks up the outline of their body so it blends in with the background. Aggressive orange males spend a lot of time in the open and need stripes to help them escape from predators (the optical effect of stripes on fast-moving prey makes them hard to catch)...

Children of smokers have more than 5 times higher levels of a nicotine toxin

... cotinine, one of chemicals produced when the body breaks down nicotine from inhaled smoke to get rid of it. Sleeping with parents and lower temperature rooms were also associated with increased amounts of cotinine. Cotinine was measured in 100 urine samples taken from infants aged 12 weeks. Sevent...

First confirmed common genetic risk factors for breast cancer

...in the first place, by helping cells to repair DNA breaks and other abnormalities that can result from chance or exposure to an environmental toxin, such as excessive UV sunlight. However, BRCA-1, BRCA-2 and the other previously identified breast cancer susceptibility genes are mutated in a relatively small...

DNA repair proteins monitored at double-strand break

...ak to link together the broken ends. Double-strand breaks are ruptures that cut completely across the twiste...y blocking their ability to repair double-stranded breaks caused by chemotherapy or radiation. It could also suggest new strategies for enhancing repair of do...

Baumann Lab defines proteins that distinguish chromosome ends from DNA double-strand breaks

...hromosome ends are distinct from DNA double-strand breaks and that the cellular machinery that repairs DNA breaks does not act on telomeres. But how repair factors are prevented from acting at chromosome ends has b...

Blood sugar's manufacture limited by building blocks' supply

...es up, Gray explained. In response, the body first breaks down liver glycogen, the principal storage form of glucose. However, the body "goes through those stores overnight," she said. Once the reserves are depleted, the body must rely on the synthesis of new glucose, primarily in the liver, to prevent a...

Red flag for repetitive stress injuries identified for first time in humans

...at way, conservative intervention ?ibuprofen, rest breaks at work, exercise ?can be evaluated as to their effectiveness in preventing the development of chronic work-related conditions and, consequently, the need for more serious measures such as surgery. "If the injury to the tissues can be halted, the...

Cancer-killing invention also harvests stem cells

...orks. Finally, he learned that when a cancer cell breaks free of a primary tumor and enters circulation, it flow through the bloodstream to a remote organ, then leaves the bloodstream and forms a secondary tumor. This is how cancer spreads. He put these facts together with one more, very important fact: ...

Scientists discover how body fights to control spread of cancer

... small protein called galectin-3, attacks MUC1 and breaks up its protective shield, forcing large areas of the cancer cell to become exposed. The exposed areas of the cell allow the cancer to attach to the blood vessel wall. The cancer cells then eventually penetrate the blood wall to form tumours at secon...

MicroRNAs as tumor suppressors

...pression in the cell cytosol. However, chromosomal breaks that shorten the 3?end of the HMGA2 transcript, and prevent let-7 binding, result in aberrantly high levels of HMGA2 expression and tumorigenesis. This paper establishes that HMGA2 is a target of let-7, and that the let-7 microRNA functions as a tumo...

Cartilage discovery offers arthritis hope

...ble to wear and tear. "Eventually, the cartilage breaks down altogether and sufferers experience severe pain as the two ends of the bones rub against each other." The team's findings ?published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ?also explain why mutations in cartilage collag...

Protein sensor for fatty acid buildup in mitochondria

... of a key molecule in the biochemical pathway that breaks down these fatty acids, according to investigators at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital. This breakdown of fatty acids, in turn, provides the cell energy while reducing the chance that excess fatty acids will accumulate. The St. Jude discovery ...

DNA ends: Common tool, different job

... chromosome ends as though they were double-strand breaks would result in either unregulated degradation or end-to-end fusions. Such repair events are lethal for the genome, and in certain settings, can promote the development of cancer. About 10 years ago, Lundblad discovered that Cdc13, a protein that ...

Cancer tip -- Nanoparticles can damage DNA, increase cancer risk

...el electrophoresis assay (Comet assay) to quantify breaks in single and double stranded DNA. The team chose these particular nanoparticle types because they are commonly used commercially ?in electronics, textiles and sporting goods ?and easy to work with in the laboratory setting. "We observed both d...

Proteins important in Alzheimer's, Parkinson's disease travel in the slow lane

...Journal of Neuroscience. Axonal transport often breaks down and many neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by defects in this process. Of particular interest is a group of transported proteins called slow component-b that includes synuclein and tau, disease proteins involved in Parkinson’s and Alz...

Genes may determine success of hip replacement surgery

...and vitamin D synthesis. MMP1 is an enzyme that breaks down collagen, the main protein found in bone and cartilage, while interleukin 6 is a chemical involved in bone metabolism and the immune response. Vitamin D synthesis is important for strong healthy bones. Variations in the interleukin 6 gene ...

Penn study on lung-infecting bacterial enzyme suggests new approach to cystic fibrosis treatment

...e, secreted by certain respiratory tract bacteria, breaks down lipids surrounding CFTR and thereby suppresses CFTR’s chloride-passing function. To make matters worse, the products of the lipid breakdown are also known to trigger inflammation and cell death. Together, these facts compellingly suggest tha...

Chemical switch triggers critical cell activities

...ound to the notch, right next to NEDD8. NEDD8 then breaks its thioester bond with E1 and reforms it with E2. As soon as NEDD8 breaks its thioester bond to E1 and forms a thioester bond with E2 instead, E2 falls away from E1 taking NE...

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