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Penn researchers link cell's protein recycling systems

...lar link between the cell’s two major pathways for breaking down proteins and have succeeded in using this lin...Nature. The cell has two internal pathways for breaking down proteins. The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway marks unwanted proteins with ubiquitin tags and shut...

Bacteria ferry nanoparticles into cells for early diagnosis, treatment

...e cell. "At the same time that the bacteria are breaking up this vesicle membrane, the cargo dislodges from the bacteria, which are both crucial steps in delivering this cargo," Akin said. The nanoparticles, which range in size from 40 to 200 nanometers - or billionths of a meter - are attached to the b...

DNA repair proteins monitored at double-strand break

... across the twisted, ladder-like structure of DNA, breaking it into two pieces. Using a technique developed specifically for this project, the St. Jude researchers could determine when repair proteins arrived at or around the DNA break and evaluate its repair—even when particular proteins shifted away from ...

Study of protein folds offers insight into metabolic evolution

...ese protein domains catalyze a range of functions, breaking down or combining metabolites, small molecules that include the building blocks of all life. Their findings relied on a fundamental assumption: that the most widely utilized protein folds (they looked at proteins in more than 200 species) were als...

Fused nasal bones helped tyrannosaurids dismember prey

...ation, for instance, was keeping the T. rexes from breaking their own skull while breaking the bones of their prey." Snively and co-authors, number-crunching physicist Donald Henderson fro...

Genome sequencing reveals key to viable ethanol production

...t the industrial scale yet because the first step, breaking down the plant’s cellulose, is much too inefficient. The key, Wu surmised, is to find out what enzymes the bacterium uses to accomplish its feat, and then boost its ability to produce those enzymes. The problem, however, lies in the fact that C. ther...

Progress toward artificial photosynthesis?

...special metal catalysts are known to be capable of breaking the C–O bonds in CO2. In contrast to most previous approaches, Antonietti’s team worked with metal-free catalysts, turning toward plants for inspiration. Photosynthesis in modern green plants involves an important intermediate step: the bonding of...

New biofuels process promises to meet all US transportation needs

...g biomass or coal into liquid fuels involves first breaking down the raw material with a chemical process that "gasifies" it into carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Then those constituents are turned into a liquid fuel with other processes. In the H2CAR concept, hydrogen would be harvested by sp...

Growth hormone is not the anti-aging bullet for healthy adults

...retty regularly, you might get that change without breaking into too much of a sweat, and you wouldn't spend $1,000 to $2,000 a month on something that appears to have modest or minimal benefit and the probability of bad side effects," said Liu. ...

Researchers discover surprising drug that blocks malaria

...olol ?jams the signal to prevent the parasite from breaking in. Scientists had long been perplexed by malaria's ability to hijack red blood cells, then wildly multiply and provoke its life-threatening symptoms. "This opens the possibility for important new drugs for malaria that won't become resistan...

Cancer researchers add spice to research against rare neuromuscular disease

...nterparts could not. ASC-J9 appears to work by breaking up a sort of molecular clog in neurons affected by Kennedy disease. The biology of the disease is bit like Huntington's disease, a more common neurodegenerative disease that is inherited, fatal, and unyielding in its progression. Both are caused by a...

Speeding 'fingertip' discovery -- 20 years of protein info in 1 place

...ht. The process improves on previous techniques by breaking up proteins more gently and keeping chemical modifications like phosphorylation intact. Previous spectrometry methods were “just too rough?on the delicate protein alterations and sheared them right off, he says. “We had to guess where they might be ...

Mitochondrial genes move to the nucleus -- but it's not for the sex

...ent in which they will recombine. It would be like breaking up a good musical duo." Mitochondrial and nuclear genomes replicate separately, and a new and beneficial mutation in the mitochondrion could be separated from partner genes in the nucleus -- in the production of eggs or pollen, via meiosis. But t...

Chimpanzees found to use tools to hunt mammalian prey

...zees were seen to subsequently open the hollows by breaking wood off from a distance, suggesting that the jabbing actions were intended to immobilize bushbabies, rather than rouse them from their cavities (bushbabies move quickly and might otherwise easily evade chimpanzees once roused). Two notable aspect...

Turtles are loyal in feeding as well as in breeding

...inter where they conducted dives of up to a record breaking 10.2 hours. Five females were also tracked when they nested again up to five years later and returned to the same foraging sites. Green turtles have been observed cropping sea grass gardens to encourage new growth, so there could be a benefit to t...

Moonlighting enzyme linked to neurodegenerative disease

...ole as a metabolizer, while increasing its role in breaking down frataxin, its second job. Moonlighting pro...ng enzyme with two jobs: regulating metabolism and breaking down proteins. The PNAS study describes how Mayo investigators identified DLD's role in reducing ...

Stress hormones may play new role in speeding up cancer growth

...loproteinases -- MMP-2 and MMP-9 -- play a role in breaking down the scaffolding that cells attach to in order to maintain their shape. The third compound, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), is important in the growth of new blood vessels into tumor cells. Earlier work by researcher Anil Sood at th...

U of M researchers invent 'flashy' new process to turn soy oil, glucose into hydrogen

... turning plant material into usable fuels has been breaking down the chemical bonds in cellulose--the material that gives plant cell walls their stiffness--to liberate simple sugars that can be fermented into ethanol or turned into other fuels. That requires special enzymes and lots of time. But the high heat...

Novel experiment documents evolution of genome in near-real time

...enzyme that initiates the process of enzymatically breaking down glycerol. Cells with mutations in the so-called glycerol kinase gene grew 20 to 60 percent faster than those without the mutation. Mutations also appeared in a second, unrelated gene for an enzyme called RNA polymerase. "That was a surprise to...

Vanishing beetle horns have surprise function

...red Oniticellus, on the other hand, had no trouble breaking free of their former exoskeletons. "It may be that these larval horns enabled Onthophagus beetles to grow a thicker carapace," Moczek said. "But it is also possible a thicker carapace made horns necessary. We are left with the commonly asked ques...

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