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Tag: "blocks" at biology news

One species, many genomes

...ined every one of the roughly 120 million building blocks of the genome. For their molecular sleuthing they used almost one billion specially designed DNA probes. "All together, these probes would have seven times the length of human genome," illustrates Weigel the extent of the project. The data were evalu...

In mice, drug protects against diabetes and atherosclerosis

...gned, potent, and selective inhibitor of aP2" that blocks the protein's ability to bind with fatty acids -- the function that leads to inflammatory and metabolic havoc when a high-fat or high-cholesterol diet is consumed. The drug appears to have no effect on lean animals eating a normal diet, the scientist...

Breakthrough developments in rheumatoid arthritis reported

...atures at his side, he turns to the basic building blocks of life – the human genome – to figure out what makes these people susceptible to the disabling inflammatory condition. Dr. Gregersen has finally closed the circle between key genes identified in his laboratory at the Robert S. Boas Center for Geno...

Massive herds of animals found to still exist in Southern Sudan

..., they began an aerial survey of three of the four blocks surveyed earlier: Boma National Park, Jonglei region and Southern National Park. Covering more than 58,000 square miles (150,000 square km) and 150 hours of survey time, the team used a survey technique of flying systematically along transects making...

Microbes at work cleaning up the environment

...ontaining amino acid. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. The researchers found that inorganic aggregation of zinc-sulfide initially occurred rapidly to 100-nanometer diameter aggregates but then slowed or ceased after one week. However, zinc-sulfide nanoparticles in the presence of cysteine...

Exploring the dark matter of the genome

...e (Mb) is a million bases, the nucleotide building blocks of DNA -- "and the male has an estimated 100 Mb, because the Y chromosome, estimated at 40 Mb, is all heterochromatin." Heterochromatin is concentrated in the chromosome's centromeres and telomeres. In a typically bow-tie-shaped chromosome, the c...

Clot-dissolving agent may be beneficial in treatment of severe frostbite

... during thawing typically stimulates clotting that blocks small blood vessels, leading to cell death. Because tPA reverses this clotting, blood flow is restored before permanent damage is done. “Based on the dramatic improvements in perfusion [blood flow] and reduction in rates of amputations when tPA wa...

UCF nanoparticle offers promise for treating glaucoma

...of carbon dioxide inside the eye, and the compound blocks the enzyme that produces carbon dioxide. Seal and a team of collaborators including Sanku Mallik, of North Dakota State University, developed the research on using nanoparticles as a delivery mechanism for the compound after supervising a student ...

Fat fish put obesity on the hook

...auses severe obesity in humans. The genetic change blocks the activity of a receptor, the melanocortin-4 receptor, which is at the heart of a “device” in our brains called the “adipostat.” The adipostat regulates body weight homeostatically, like the thermostat in a house, and works to keep long-term energ...

Peramivir protects mice from lethal H5N1 infection

...esearch Hospital. Peramivir, an antiviral drug, blocks the ability of influenza viruses to use an enzyme called neuraminidase, thus preventing the release of new virus particles and their spread from one infected cell to another. The St. Jude team studied different approaches to treating infected mic...

The sound of proteins

... to cram the 20 standard amino acids (the building blocks of proteins) into just 13 notes. The duo focus on codons ?sets of three adjacent bases that code for particular amino acids. They decided to include four different note durations with codons that appear more frequently transcribed into longer no...

Anthrax paralyzes immune cells with lethal toxin, UF research shows

...discovered that through this pathway, lethal toxin blocks the function of a protein that regulates how actin...thways that a cell uses to crawl. So anything that blocks Listeria we predict would also block neutrophils from crawling. And that's what we found."...

Fat screen delivers plant-derived chemical with antidiabetic effects

...ather than triggering PPARã directly, the chemical blocks a pathway that normally inhibits fat cells' production. "Harmine inhibits an inhibitor for a net positive effect on fat" that ultimately appears to restore insulin response without some of the side effects attributed to TZDs, Tontonoz said. The fi...

DNA repair proteins monitored at double-strand break

...air proteins; the loss of functioning ATM and NBS1 blocks this important process. The team also showed that both NBS1 and ATM are needed to ensure that the repair factor, XRCC4, arrives at the double-strand break to help repair the damage. In addition, the investigators showed that ATM initially binds to...

Study offers clues to 'Broken Heart Syndrome'

... it is also possible that a blood clot temporarily blocks a major artery of the heart, then dissolves before being detected during coronary angiography. The most common symptom of broken heart syndrome was chest pain, in 70 percent of patients, followed by shortness of breath in 33 percent. All patients ...

Newly identified mechanism for silencing genes points to possible anti-cancer strategies

...n important new gene-silencing mechanism, one that blocks the cellular machinery responsible for translating...y new pathway, one that led us to a mechanism that blocks the cellular machinery that produces protein from messenger RNA." In earlier studies, Shiekhattar...

Study of protein folds offers insight into metabolic evolution

...bolites, small molecules that include the building blocks of all life. Their findings relied on a fundame...first proteins benefited the formation of building blocks for the primitive RNA world, it makes a lot of sense that we've found this origin encased in nucleot...

Individuals and populations differ in gene activity levels, not just genes

...ding to that gene. Those proteins are the building blocks that make up living cells and tissue. "The difference between genetic information and gene expression is like the difference between computer hardware, which are the genes themselves, and computer software, which tells the computer what to do on t...

Leukemia drug turns mini-molecules up, cancer genes down

...kinds of cancer. The protein produced by this gene blocks the normal process of cell death and helps keep cancer cells alive long after they should have died. The remaining miRNA molecule, let-7, lowered the activity of the Ras oncogene, an important cancer-causing gene. (Oncogenes are normal genes that...

Blood sugar's manufacture limited by building blocks' supply

...undamentally requires two big things: the building blocks and the [glucose-building] enzymes that make it all happen. A lot of previous work has focused on the enzymes." "We've found the first defect [in glucose production] due to a loss of substrate," added Susan Gray of Brigham and Women's Hospital. ...

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