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Tag: "biosynthesis" at biology news

Scientists ID molecular 'switch' in liver that triggers harmful effects of saturated and trans fats

... of the mechanism activate many key genes of lipid biosynthesis involving the pathways of cholesterol and triglycerides; these genes directed the liver to manufacture more cholesterol, which it does in the form of very low-density lipoproteins. The investigators noted that in mice fed high-fat diets, the PCG-1bet...

Scientists find missing enzyme for tuberculosis iron scavenging pathway

... certainly a "missing enzyme" from the pathway for biosynthesis of the iron scavenging agent mycobactin," recalls ...mycobactin are drug targets, because if mycobactin biosynthesis is stopped, the bacterium cannot acquire the iron that it needs for survival," explains Dr. Baker. "...

Marine sponge yields nanoscale secrets

...-fold more than man can produce, said Morse. "This biosynthesis is remarkable because this nanoscale precision can't be duplicated by man." Besides this remarkable precision, nature manages to produce silica at a low temperature, in an environmentally friendly way without the use of caustic chemicals, whereas ma...

Bacterial genome sheds light on synthesizing cancer-fighting compounds

...monstrated an important proof of principle for the biosynthesis of naturally occurring marine products." ...

CO2 sensing proves critical for fungal pathogens to adapt to life in air and human hosts

...ndent filamentation in C. albicans and the capsule biosynthesis in C. neoformans. The authors go on to show that C...by providing bicarbonate substrates for fatty-acid biosynthesis and other cellular processes. In contrast, the CA enzyme is dispensible for the yeast's survival in ...

Novel protein complex enables survival in hostile environment

...le that M. jannaschii had this enzyme for cofactor biosynthesis and having it in advance gave the organism a selective advantage when oxygen, and consequently sulfite, appeared," Mukhopadhyay said. "Since we now know that methanogens had a way to handle sulfite toxicity, we could hypothesize that the rest of the...

When the going gets tough, slime molds start synthesizing

...thor of the study, have an ongoing interest in the biosynthesis of diverse plant and microbial polyketides by enzymes known as type III PKSs. Plants make polyketide natural products such as flavonoids and stilbenes for use as sunscreens, antibiotics, flower pigments, and anti-oxidants. Explains Austin, "Plant pol...

The molecular post office inside the cell

... bacteria to humans. Particularly important during biosynthesis is sorting secretory and membrane proteins, which have to find the way to their final destination inside or outside the cell. Secretory proteins are those that later on leave the cell, like anti-bodies. Membrane proteins are proteins embedded into th...

Methane-belching bugs inspire a new theory of the origin of life on Earth

... natural gas. A detailed understanding of methane biosynthesis could lay the foundation for a new alternative energy source, by raising the possibility of cost-efficient conversion of renewable biomass into clean fuel. James G. Ferry is Stanley Person Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, and Christo...

Patients can report statins' adverse effects on new web site

... levels by inhibiting a key enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of cholesterol. Statin cholesterol-lowering drugs are among the most prescribed drugs in the United States. According to Consumer Reports, two such drugs ?atorvastatin (Lipitor) and simvastatin (Zocor) ?were #1 and #2 best-selling drugs in the coun...

Study shows enzyme builds neurotransmitters via newly discovered pathway

...ifferent than the one previously suggested-for the biosynthesis of neurotransmitter lipids, N-acyl ethanolamines (...hemical evidence of an alternative pathway for NAE biosynthesis in vivo and demonstrate that these new routes are especially important for the creation of a number ...

Brown seaweed contains promising fat fighter, weight reducer

...ifferent than the one previously suggested-for the biosynthesis of neurotransmitter lipids, N-acyl ethanolamines (...hemical evidence of an alternative pathway for NAE biosynthesis in vivo and demonstrate that these new routes are especially important for the creation of a number ...

Nanotechnology propels advances in regenerative medicine research

...ifferent than the one previously suggested-for the biosynthesis of neurotransmitter lipids, N-acyl ethanolamines (...hemical evidence of an alternative pathway for NAE biosynthesis in vivo and demonstrate that these new routes are especially important for the creation of a number ...

'Conversation stoppers' fight deadly bacterial infections

...ifferent than the one previously suggested-for the biosynthesis of neurotransmitter lipids, N-acyl ethanolamines (...hemical evidence of an alternative pathway for NAE biosynthesis in vivo and demonstrate that these new routes are especially important for the creation of a number ...

Lead with a poisonous electron shield

...inolevulinic acid dehydratase is essential for the biosynthesis of hemoglobin. Inhibition of this enzyme disrupts the formation of blood to the point of anemia. At the active center, a zinc ion binds to four ligands, three of which involve a sulfur atom. When lead replaces zinc, it only binds to the three sulfur ...

Stem cells act through multiple mechanisms to benefit mice with neurodegenerative disease

...enetic engineering. (The drug, a glycosphingolipid biosynthesis inhibitor, is in a class of compounds called "substrate reduction therapy" drugs.) This part of the study not only represented the first "multidisciplinary" use of stem cells against a degenerative disease, but also highlighted the fact that, in the ...

Researchers learn what sparks plant growth

...es, are central to plant survival. Brassinosteroid biosynthesis has become a critically important area of plant biology research with significant implications for commercial agriculture. "It’s been a matter of some debate for a very long time if one of these tissue layers controls plant growth or if all three ...

To sleep, perchance to dream: New insight into melatonin production

...lled AANAT, which is a key enzyme in the melatonin biosynthesis pathway. Dr. Kim and colleagues uncovered the mechanism of rhythmic control of AANAT mRNA translation, and thereby melatonin synthesis. The researchers found that rodent AANAT mRNA translation is mediated by IRES (internal ribosome entry site) el...

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