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Tag: "begins" at biology news

A gene's first 'kiss' sets off that affair known as puberty

...s and voice change in boys. As such, this research begins to answer one of the most vexing questions about human development: What causes puberty to begin? How is it that the full repertoire of reproductive hormones can exist at birth, go into hiding at about four to six months of age, then reemerge in full...

U of M researcher examines newly emerging deadly disease

...amed staphylococcal purpura fulminans. The disease begins as a respiratory tract infection, which then is infected by Staphylococcus aureus. The infection then moves to the lungs, making superantigens (bacterial toxins that activate large numbers of T cells), often leading to death due to hypertension and s...

Gene therapy converts dead bone graft to new, living tissue

...chwarz. "It's at that point that the body actually begins changing the dead, foreign bone splint, into the body's own, whole, living bone." Such a transformation can occur because mammals use their skeletons for both support and as a kind of "calcium bank." If calcium, which is necessary for such important...

Placenta Is A Rich Source Of Blood Stem Cells

...ding about embryonic development: the blood system begins to form not only in the embryo itself, but also in the placenta, the organ that nurtures the baby in utero. Meticulous experiments in mice revealed that the placenta harbors a large supply of hematopoietic (blood-forming) stem cells. These cells, wh...

Scientists discover that host cell lipids facilitate bacterial movement

... that envelop the brain and spinal cord. Infection begins when the bacterium binds to a receptor on the surface of a cell, causing the cell to ingest it. The bacterium multiplies inside the cell and then uses a cellular protein called ActA to stimulate the host cell's actin to form filaments at one end of t...

Asthma gene clusters identified

...cially during an asthma attack. But because asthma begins in childhood, the genes identified in adults may not reflect genes involved in childhood asthma, she said. This study exclusively focused on genes associated with epithelial cells. Genes associated with mucosa and underlying cells are likely to be i...

Cricket's finicky mating behavior boosts biodiversity

...rm cells that impregnate the female. As a species begins to split into two separate species, says Mendelson, "the songs appear to be the first characteristic that changes." During the early part of the speciation process, says Mendelson, crickets of the two emerging lines interbreed. After a point, howeve...

Nanoscale Diagnostic Sets Sights on Alzheimer's

...bet that the very earliest stage of AD memory loss begins when ADDLs attack key synapses in the brain. We predicted some of these ADDLs would leak into the cerebrospinal fluid, but until now we couldn't detect them. Thanks to the extraordinary sensitivity of the BCA it's been possible to validate the predic...

Researchers identify protein crucial for survival of Lyme-disease bacterium

...s them. Ultimately, as the tick feeds on blood and begins to go through its molting process, the levels of the knockout Bb bacteria in the tick drop by about 90 percent, which is a very dramatic decrease." In the study, each time infected ticks fed, bacteria levels within them dropped until they eventually ...

Multi-purpose protein regulates new protein synthesis and immune cell development

...the cell's endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The process begins with chains of amino acids, which are deposited in the ER membrane in response to coded instructions from genes. Chaperone proteins fold these amino acid chains into specific shapes and direct them to different areas of the ER for processing. When t...

New insight into regulation of blood stem cells

...ts. Blood cell formation, known as hematopoiesis, begins with a hematopoietic stem cell (HSC), which can either "self-renew" and make more copies of itself or differentiate into either red blood cells, various types of white blood cells, or platelets. The genes that control proliferation and differentiatio...

Super predators and mass extinctions

...ill the existing ecological niches - and the cycle begins again. The period of the cycle depends on mutation rates in the model. The lower the mutation rate, the longer the periods between super predators. For a sufficiently low mutation rate, the model can lead to cycles that correspond to our 26 million ...

Technique may allow cancer patients to freeze eggs, preserving fertility before starting treatment

... have found. By having her eggs frozen before she begins cancer treatments, a woman can preserve the hope o...ians still need to be established as the technique begins to be offered in a clinic setting, Smith says. "This is a very new technology and it requires educat...

Insight into DNA's 'weakest links' may yield clues to cancer biology

...east cells also contain such weak links in DNA and begins to reveal the molecular characteristics of these links that might help to explain them. The findings, published in the March 11, 2005, issue of Cell, suggest that yeast may offer a useful model system for studying the fundamental properties of so-ca...

Decoding the logic of olfaction

...f of skunk spray. The process of smelling an odor begins with odorant receptors that are located on the surface of nerve cells inside the nose. When an odorant receptor detects an odor molecule, it triggers a nerve signal that travels to a way station in the brain called the olfactory bulb. Signals from th...

Genpathway and Baylor College of Medicine Identify New Genes in Breast Cancer

...f of skunk spray. The process of smelling an odor begins with odorant receptors that are located on the surface of nerve cells inside the nose. When an odorant receptor detects an odor molecule, it triggers a nerve signal that travels to a way station in the brain called the olfactory bulb. Signals from th...

Defensins Ward Off HIV In Two Ways

...e stage when the virus is taken up by the cell and begins replicating itself and integrating into the host. The authors also show that the way alpha-defensin-1 blocks HIV infection in cells is by inhibiting a CD4+ cell-signaling molecule called PKC. The finding that alpha-defensin-1 acts on both the virus ...

Secret of smallpox's success may lead to bioterror cure

...virus calls attention to itself, the immune system begins a complex immune response, including developing antigens that specifically target the virus. Because the virus's double-stranded RNA signal is very clear, the immune response tends to be very strong when the quantity of the uncloaked virus is high. ...

Tendency to hair loss inherited from the mother

It begins with receding hairlines, the forehead becomes higher, the hair at the back of the man's head gets thinner and thinner. Every second man suffers from greater or lesser hair loss. There are hardly any successful counter-measures ?despite an enormous ra...

Currents could disrupt ocean food chain

...he water cools, it sinks 2,000 to 3,000 meters and begins flowing southward. The upwelling from the mixing of waters constantly replenishes the supply of phytoplankton at the surface, forming a rich nutrient source at the bottom of the marine food web. There is growing concern by a number of scientists, ho...

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