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Carnegie Mellon scientists find key HIV protein makes cell membranes bend more easily

...termediates. Through evolution, viruses have also become skilled at fusing with cells to unload their genetic contents, which turn host cells into virus-producing factories. In the case of HIV, a molecule called gp120 initially helps the virus lock onto its host T cell, a cell critical for maintaining immu...

Common cancer gene sends death order to tiny killer

...s in p53's uncanny ability to kill cells likely to become malignant because of damaged genes in their nuclei. MicroRNAs are small chains of ribonucleic acid (RNA) made by the same machinery that produces other types of RNA in the cell, such as the messenger RNAs that carry the instructions to make proteins....

Researchers discover inherited mutation for leukemia

...mally helps trigger the death of cells before they become cancerous. Researchers identified the mutation by testing a family in which the father, four sons, a grandson and a distant female relative developed this form of leukemia. The chemical change is called DNA methylation. Healthy cells use this pro...

Cells re-energize to come back from the brink of death

...destruct program, which allows them to survive and become cancerous. The St. Jude study also suggests th...s, including gene mutations that can make the cell become cancerous. During apoptosis, the membrane covering the cell’s mitochondria develop holes and leak a ...

Blood test may help signal tumor's remission, return in throat cancer patients

...commonly released by a growing tumor could one day become a useful tool for monitoring the effectiveness of chemotherapy and radiation treatment in people with advanced throat cancer, according to a study published in the June 1, 2007, issue of Clinical Cancer Research . Scientists in the National Institut...

Hormone helps mice 'hibernate,' survive starvation

...of fat as energy. Starving mice without PPAR-alpha become hypoglycemic and quickly die. In analyzing the molecular impact of PPAR-alpha in mice, the researchers found that it stimulates production of FGF21, a member of a hormone family that has been shown to lower blood glucose levels in diabetic and obe...

Bigger horns equal better genes

...er time. Therefore, differences in genetic quality become more apparent as an organism ages. Coltman noted that his study, which incorporated genetic samples from more than 150 ibex, took into account the fact that environmental factors also play a role in determining ibex horn size. The ibex's horns...

Largest synthetic gene ever built offers insights into anti-malarial drug resistance

...ding why the most lethal form of human malaria has become resistant to drug treatment in the past three deca...arasite Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum), has become resistant to most of the drugs that could once destroy it. They have already described and expressed...

In mice, drug protects against diabetes and atherosclerosis

...ncourage macrophages to load up on cholesterol and become "foam cells" that adhere to artery walls, creating dangerous plaques that eventually may rupture and trigger a heart attack. In mice lacking these lipid chaperones, there was no sign of heart disease. Next, the researchers turned to humans. While ...

Research shows cord blood comparable to matched bone marrow

...e marrow.” The research suggests that it will become more important to invest in cord blood banks that meet certain standards in relation to cell dose (or volume of the transplanted cells) and Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) diversity. Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA) are a group of proteins on bone mar...

Dual-imaging technique useful before -- and during -- brain surgery

... researchers expect this dual-imaging technique to become standard practice across the United States in the next five years, there are still limitations. For example, explains Leach, patients with limited vision may not demonstrate as much activity in the brain in areas linked to vision during functional MR...

Researchers shed light on shrinking of chromosomes

...starts preparing for division, and the chromosomes become shorter and shorter until they are about to separate and migrate towards the poles of the cell. “It is at this stage that textbooks say chromosomes are shortest. Then, after separating they would expand again,” says Ellenberg. “But we found somethi...

Now, self-healing materials can mimic human skin, healing again and again

...cation, however, the supply of healing agent would become exhausted,” said Scott White, a Willett Professor of aerospace engineering and a researcher at the Beckman Institute. “In our new circulation-based approach, there is a continuous supply of healing agent, so the material could heal itself indefinitel...

Researchers examine carbon capture and storage to combat global warming

While solar power and hybrid cars have become popular symbols of green technology, Stanford researchers are exploring another path for cutting emissions of carbon dioxide, the leading greenhouse gas that causes global warming. Carbon capture and storage, also called carbon sequestration, traps ...

Undergraduate research shows leaderless honeybee organizing

...rs pay the queen – until it became time to go – to become airborne. Then they started interacting with her at very high rates, and performing the ‘worker piping’ signal on her. This interaction is a behavior that nobody had described before,” Schneider said. Contrary to the popular conception of a colony...

Newly discovered antibody may be body's natural defense against Alzheimer's

...rticular shape that proteins assume only when they become these toxic aggregates." The ability of the antibodies to recognize toxic proteins based on their shape may have important implications for immune therapy of other neurologic disorders, the researchers explain. "We were able to confirm that t...

Exploring the dark matter of the genome

...of California at Berkeley. "In recent years it has become apparent that heterochromatin is critical for many...t repeats are called satellite DNAs, which tend to become more abundant near the centromeres, adding up to hundreds of thousands or even millions of bases in ...

In nature, proteins sweep up nanoparticles

...icles in their tracks, as this process does, could become a critical component of a bioremediation strategy, if only scientists understand how it works. To explore this question, the team turned to Berkeley Lab’s Advanced Light Source, a national user facility that generates intense light for scientific ...

Cancer stem cells similar to normal stem cells can thwart anti-cancer agents

... cells, called cancer stem cells, which ultimately become the source of disease recurrence and eventual metastasis. Now, research by scientists at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine suggests that for chemotherapy to be truly effective in treating lung cancers, for example, it must be able to ta...

Warning from Asian bees

...pua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands, they could become a serious pest, not just for beekeepers, but of concern to agriculture generally. Bees play a big role in the food supply chain. “In the big scheme of things, honey's a bit of a minor product, really,” NSW Department of Primary Industries apiar...

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