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Tag: "base" at biology news

Identified main genetic variants involved in response to HIV

...single variations affecting only one nucleotide or base of the genomic sequence. Despite humans sharing 99.9% of the genome sequence, there are still 3 million genetic variations –which make us different from one another– 90% of which are due to SNPs. Hence, a good knowledge of these variations is highly ...

Blood test may help signal tumor's remission, return in throat cancer patients

...especially in cancers arising from the tonsils and base of the tongue. In the largest long-term study of its kind, NIH and University of Michigan researchers tested the blood of 30 patients who had undergone chemotherapy and radiation treatment for advanced throat cancer. Starting immediately before tr...

Largest synthetic gene ever built offers insights into anti-malarial drug resistance

...rasite gene sequence − which combines nucleotide base pairs in a way that is found in no other life form...aller PfCRT gene. PfMDR1 is made up of about 4,000 base pairs and its protein is particularly large, Roepe said, making the recent work much more challengin...

Ancient DNA traces the woolly mammoth's disappearance

...icate that Siberian mammoths expanded from a small base some time before sixty thousand years ago. Moreover, they found two distinct genetic groups, implying that mammoths had diverged in isolation for some time before merging back into a single population. The DNA further suggests that no later than fort...

New findings challenge established views on human genome

...the human genome sequence, or about 30 million DNA base pairs. The targets were strategically selected to provide a representative cross section of the entire human genome. All told, the ENCODE consortium generated more than 200 datasets and analyzed more than 600 million data points. “Our results rev...

Mutating the entire genome

... T. DNA in each human cell has about 3 billion base pairs, arranged into 23 pairs of chromosomes. Thos...s in living organisms. Genes typically have 50,000 base pairs but can range in size from a few thousand to 300,000 base pairs, Capecchi says. The genes ...

The mouflons of the Kerguelen archipelago

...he most isolated places on Earth, house a military base and a science station. In 1957, the local authorities decided to offer residents the opportunity to hunt mouflons (a type of wild sheep). A pair of Corsican mouflons was imported from the Vincennes Zoo in Paris. Initially, the mouflon population grew...

Common treatment for methamphetamine overdose may damage brain cells

... his colleagues noted more than a fivefold rise in base levels of glutamate in the substantia nigra, a part of the brain known to play a role in movement disorders such as Huntington's disease. After examining the long-term effects of the combination, they found that glutamate concentrations in the su...

Technique monitors thousands of molecules simultaneously

...t into a reductant; a reductant into an oxidant; a base into an acid and an acid into a base; and so on. In the end, almost any chemical reagent can be made at an electrode and used on the chips." Moeller said that , along with emphasizing new reactions, he and his collaborators are working to better id...

'Insulator' helps silence genes in dormant herpes virus

...ntified an "insulator" ?a stretch of DNA about 800 base pairs long ?that serves as a physical barrier between active and inactive regions of the virus genome. Base pairs are the nucleotides on each side of the rungs that connect the strands of the DNA ladder. "By establishing an insulator in early late...

The sound of proteins

...te range spanning over 2 octaves, but with just 13 base notes. The team find their music more melodic and less ‘jumpy?than previous attempts, which have focussed on DNA sequences and protein folding, and hence closer to the musical depth of popular compositions. They are currently piloting a computer ...

Scientists seek useful traits in wild cottons

...cottons that shed the small leaves (bracts) at the base of each boll a few days after flower blooms open. Determining whether this trait is dominant, co-dominant or recessive and finding its DNA location could help breeders develop upland cottons that require less lint cleaning ?producing cleaner ...

Get a whiff of this: Smell test could sniff out serious health problems

...rsity of Pennsylvania. Frank says the SMT customer base would be primarily otolaryngologists and neurologists. “The whole test is based on the very simple observation that when you sniff and you detect a smell, you take a smaller sniff than if you inhaled and didn’t detect a smell,?Frank explains. “For...

Fish extinctions alter critical nutrients in water, study shows

...rients that other species rely on. Algae, at the base of the food chain, for example, rely on fish to cycle back into the water such nutrients as nitrogen and phosphorus, which are otherwise locked up in animal or plant cells. Fish excrete dissolved nutrients back into the water, making them available t...

Corals that can fight global warming may one day help fragile reefs

...onse," said Harvell. "Although corals are near the base of the evolutionary tree, they are complicated animals." The complexities arise from different levels of symbiosis within a coral, both with bacteria on the surface and algae in the interior. Moreover, the warmer waters cause increased virulence of...

Study examines genetic risk factors for Alzheimer's disease

...genes for Alzheimer’s disease provides a knowledge base for the development of potential new treatments and diagnostic tests. This study is just the first in series we are undertaking using new technology to look comprehensively at every gene in the human genome in Alzheimer’s Disease and we hope that th...

Scientists find genes involved in the battle between Hessian flies and wheat

... locked. Then the larvae finally crawl down to the base of the plant and die. This is death by frustration." Hessian flies can be controlled by using specifically bred wheat varieties called resistant wheat cultivars. Infestations by the flies also can be prevented by planting wheat after the fly is no...

Horse genome assembled

...fort to sequence the approximately 2.7 billion DNA base pairs in the genome of the horse (Equus caballus) ...of the horse genome, which means, on average, each base pair has been sequenced almost seven times over. Researchers can access the horse genome sequence da...

Nanotechnology meets biology and DNA finds its groove

...etic information encoded in the arrangement of the base pairs that make up the molecule can be scanned and read like a bar code. The key to the new technology, argues Schwartz, is that the system is comprehensive, inexpensive and simple enough to lend itself to large-scale efforts to analyze DNA. "I...

Synthetic peptide targets latent papilloma virus infections

...pithelial stem cells, which are naïve cells at the base of the skin that can turn into many of the various types of cells that make up the skin. As these cells divide and differentiate into skin cells, the viruses hitch a ride on the cells' chromosomes but do not become part of the chromosomes, as do othe...

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