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Tag: "basal" at biology news

U-M scientists find genes that control growth of common skin cancer

...functions of the Hedgehog (Hh) signalingpathway in basal cell carcinoma ?the most common form of cancer ?anduncovered a subset of tumor cells that were resistant to inhibition ofthe Hedgehog pathway. The new finding has important implications forthe treatment of this widespread disease.Their report will be...

Bird Brains Show How Trial and Error May Contribute to Learning

...AN receives input about complex movements from the basal ganglia and forwards the information to motor neur...ions. "In a nutshell, our paper suggests that the basal ganglia play a special role in generating motor variability," Brainard said. "It's been known for a ...

Birds brains reveal source of songs

...ng have a human counterpart, the poorly understood basal ganglia circuit, so birds may have something to teach us about our own brains and what we learn may eventually apply to human diseases that affect motor abilities, such as Parkinson's disease. "The question we're trying to answer is how a young bird...

Love's all in the brain: fMRI study shows strong, lateralized reward, not sex, drive

...hen, this brain region (and related regions of the basal ganglia) helps to direct one's actions toward atta...ndings about the diverse regional functions of the basal ganglia in humans have remarkable implications." "Our data even may be relevant to some forms of au...

Brain-mapping technique aids understanding of sleep, wakefulness

...consolidation of wakefulness. Some neurons in the basal forebrain produce the chemical acetylcholine. These cells are very active during wakefulness when an animal or human is aroused and attentive. Previous studies have shown that orexin neurons project to these cells, sending positive signals downstream...

Brain-injury rehabilitation depends on acetylcholine circuitry

...that the cholinergic system in a region called the basal forebrain was associated with normal learning of m...t contribution toward this goal by identifying the basal forebrain cholinergic system as an essential substrate in mediating cortical plasticity and function...

Study reveals dramatic difference between breast cancers in US and Africa

...inherited BRCA1 mutations). Tumors that arise from basal cells have a worse prognosis, regardless of race. -- Second, African breast cancers often lacked estrogen receptors. Although 80 percent of breast cancers in Caucasian women have estrogen receptors, only 23 percent of African tumors did. These tumor...

Confocal imaging promises early detection of skin cancer

...phology. “But doctors need to look deeper into the basal layers, at least one millimetre down, to be sure of their diagnosis,?says Dr Sheblee. The original idea for using confocal microscopy to look deeper into skin came from German company Siemens. The technology involves illumination of a single point i...

Mass production of human papillomavirus could lead to gains against cervical cancer

...fective cycle, the virus lurks in undifferentiated basal epithelial (skin) cells, said Ahlquist. Once there, it remains in a diffuse form at low levels, limiting its visibility to the immune system. Only after the epithelial cells begin differentiating does the virus emerge as distinct, infective viral pa...

Methamphetamine Abuse, HIV Infection Cause Changes in Brain Structure

... pay attention to what’s going on around them) and basal ganglia (linked to motor function and motivation)....nvolved in higher thought, reasoning, and memory), basal ganglia, and hippocampus (involved in memory and learning). The scientists stress that among the re...

What Makes The Brain Tick, Tick, Tick: Researchers Gaining New Insights Into Brain's Internal Clock

...atum is a part of the brain structure known as the basal ganglia, which control basic body functions such a...e oscillations are monitored and integrated by the basal ganglia or striatal circuits. It's like a conductor who listens to the orchestra, which is composed ...

Sleeping sickness parasite shows how cells divide their insides

...tified a new cellular structure, distinct from the basal body, involved in the duplication of the Golgi apparatus and defined by a highly-conserved protein, Centrin2. This structure has two lobes -- one at the old Golgi, the other where the new Golgi forms. Once a new Golgi has grown, the Centrin structure...

Living taste cells produced outside the body

...population of undifferentiated precursors known as basal cells. Understanding of the process of taste cel...of starting with mature taste cells, they obtained basal cells from rat taste buds and placed these cells in a tissue culture system containing nutrients and...

HPV subtype associated with squamous cell skin cancers

...ples from 252 patients with SCC, 525 patients with basal cell carcinomas (BCC), and 461 control subjects. The authors detected genus beta type HPV antibodies in patients diagnosed with SCC more frequently than in control subjects, particularly HPV 5, but no difference was found in the presence of HPV ant...

FSU biologist says new dinosaur is oldest cousin of Tyrannosaurus rex

... Researchers say the identification of the oldest basal (primitive) tyrannosauroid yet will shed light on the early evolution and geographical distribution of its ancestors –?small therapod dinosaurs known as coelurosaurs that were the closest relatives of modern-day birds. "It's not only the oldest tyra...

Biomarkers may hone anti-aging therapies

...r skin cancer, particularly the most common forms: basal and squamous cell carcinomas. Sligh and colleagues were surprised to find a panel of mitochondrial DNA deletions in the tumor-free skin that was adjacent to the tumors, but not in the tumors themselves. The tumor samples were more likely to have ful...

Breast stem cells have features similar to 'basal' tumors

...ll' markers. These characteristics also define the basal subtype of breast cancer, which is more commonly s...r very early descendents, are the cells from which basal tumours arise. Dr Visvader, who led the team effort with Dr Lindeman at WEHI, said, "This finding ma...

Gene first linked to rare disease may trigger skin cancer, other tumors

... cancers originating from the epidermis, including basal cell carcinomas (BCC) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). BCC and SCC represent the two most common forms of skin cancer, which together affect an estimated one million Americans each year. "Interestingly, we observed reduced or absent expression o...

Massive duplication of genes may solve Darwin's 'abominable mystery' about flowering plants

...he yellow water lily (Nuphar). "We can view these basal angiosperms like the Hubble Space Telescope, which helps us get a deeper look into the early history of the universe--these plants allow us to take a deeper look into genomic history." Darwin noticed that flowering plants appear suddenly in the foss...

Pleasure and pain: Study shows brain's 'pleasure chemical' is involved in response to pain too

...s active in areas of the brain region known as the basal ganglia, the same region where it has been observe..., differences emerged in specific sub-areas of the basal ganglia. For example, the more a person rated the pain as causing emotional distress and fear, the m...

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