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Tag: "barrier" at biology news

Carnegie Mellon scientists find key HIV protein makes cell membranes bend more easily

...ell membranes. Lipid bilayers provide a protective barrier for the cell against intruders, yet also contain molecules to recognize and communicate with other cells or get nutrients. Cells also communicate with one another via small, membrane-bound vesicles that contain proteins or other molecular cargo. When...

Breakthrough developments in rheumatoid arthritis reported

...ubjects for use by the scientific community. A key barrier to progress for many geneticists is the costs of obtaining genetic data from normal control populations to use for comparison to the genetic variation seen in people with disease. In collaboration with the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Th...

Physicist cracks women's random but always lucky choice of X chromosome

...which, if activated, seals the chromosome behind a barrier of RNA preventing the activation of any other gene. Researchers believe that this suicide gene can be itself blocked by a plug of proteins forming on top of its specific location on the chromosome but they had little idea as to why this should happen...

UCF nanoparticle offers promise for treating glaucoma

...e nanoparticle can safely get past the blood-brain barrier making it an effective non-toxic tool for drug delivery,” said Sudipta Seal, an engineering professor with appointments in UCF’s Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Center and the Nanoscience Technology Center. The findings will be publish...

Blood-brain barrier breached by new therapeutic strategy

... to deliver antiviral siRNA across the blood-brain barrier and into nerve cells in the brain. Once inside brain nerve cells, the antiviral siRNA can silence key viral genes to control the infection. Furthermore, repeated administration of the RNA interference therapy did not trigger inflammation or antibodie...

'Insulator' helps silence genes in dormant herpes virus

...out 800 base pairs long ?that serves as a physical barrier between active and inactive regions of the virus genome. Base pairs are the nucleotides on each side of the rungs that connect the strands of the DNA ladder. "By establishing an insulator in early latency, the Herpes virus can protect this one sma...

Keeping the immune system from starting a 'food fight'

...ers suggest. Treatments designed to reinforce that barrier may therefore provide the "next frontier" of therapies to combat the rising tide of chronic metabolic disease, they said. "Humans were not meant to deal with little to no exercise and a constant bombardment of nutrients," said Gökhan Hotamisligil ...

Scientists identify prion's infectious secret

... that this synthetic prion could cross the species barrier but did not identify the mechanism. Tessier found that this synthetic prion contained two recognition elements, one for baker’s yeast and one for pathogenic fungi. When the prion was placed with peptide fragments from baker’s yeast, the baker’s yeast...

Cure for cancer one step closer

...nd blood collections with clinical data is a major barrier to improving care of cancer patients. "Queensland research has taken an enormous step forward this week. There is every possibility that findings made achievable by the Tissue Bank will lead to the next big breakthrough in the fight against cancer...

Vasectomy may put men at risk for type of dementia

...y FTD) because the surgery breeches the protective barrier between the blood and the testes, called the blood...ch sperm are produced) are protected by a physical barrier of Sertoli cells. The tight connections between these cells prevent blood-borne infections and poiso...

Researchers discover new details about HIV-1 entry and infection

...lining of vaginal cells, which serves as the first barrier to the virus. The isolated preparation of intact, viable, vaginal epithelium permitted examination of immune cells that normally migrate out of the vaginal epithelium into deeper tissues shortly after exposure to HIV-1. The researchers found that ...

Inhibiting blood to save the brain

... might also have applications to other blood-brain barrier diseases where blood leakage and microglia activation is present such as spinal cord injury, Alzheimer's disease or stroke. ...

Scientists map air pollution using corn grown in US fields

...und that the Rocky Mountains appeared to provide a barrier for the movement of carbon dioxide from fossil fuels. Air in the Mountain West, including Colorado, Idaho and New Mexico, was the cleanest, with about 370 parts per million of carbon dioxide. Air in the Eastern United States, which includes M...

A first glimpse of the influenza replication machine

... the ability of the bird virus to jump the species barrier to humans. Researchers from the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) in Grenoble and Heidelberg, the Institut de Biologie Structurale (IBS) and the Unit of Virus Host Cell Interactions (UVHCI)*, both in Grenoble, have now produced the first 3...

Coated nanoparticles solve sticky drug-delivery problem

...oated 200-nanometer particles could slip through a barrier of human mucus. They then conducted further tes.... The work suggests that the openings in the mucus barrier are much larger than originally expected by most. And we were also surprised to find that the larger...

Brain works more chaotically than previously thought

...her neuron. The synapse presents an insurmountable barrier to the neuron's electrical pulses. The brain overcomes this obstruction by means of an amazing signal conversion: the synapse releases chemical messengers, known as neurotransmitters, which diffuse to the dendrites. There, they dock onto specific rec...

Interaction between lymph and liver cells may affect immune response

...lial cells that line blood vessels form a physical barrier that prevents naïve (unactivated) T cells from acc...emains as to how T cells can cross the endothelial barrier to interact with liver cells. A collaborative work between Alessandra Warren and David Le Couteur...

Edible coatings will be the packaging of the future

...arent film that covers the food item and acts as a barrier to humidity and oxygen. Moreover, these films can ...ith films made of starch, known to be an efficient barrier to oxygen, and with which trials were undertaken. In this case, the thickness of the film did not in...

Researchers to develop active nanoscale surfaces for biological separations

...pposing layers of fat molecules, act as the cell's barrier to the outside world. DNA molecules move on these surfaces in two dimensions, much like objects on a conveyor belt. Kane and his colleagues recently discovered that the mobility of DNA molecules is closely coupled to the movement of the underlying li...

MIT material stops bleeding in seconds

...peptides self-assemble into a nanoscale protective barrier gel that seals the wound and halts bleeding. Once ...y to stop bleeding; whether it produces a physical barrier is unclear at this time," Ellis-Behnke said. The researchers are confident, however, that the mat...

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