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Tag: "backbone" at biology news

Family trees of ancient bacteria reveal evolutionary moves

...dy the evolution of Cyanobacteria, Blank drew up a backbone tree using multiple genes from whole genome sequences. Additional species were added to the tree using ribosomal RNA genes. Morphological characters, for instance, the presence or absence of a sheath, unicellular or filamentous growth, the presence o...

Revolutionary nanotechnology illuminates brain cells at work

...stance of interest binds to the sensor, the sensor backbone becomes reoriented, and the reorientation can be detected. Since light is a vibration, the same response occurs with two fluorescent dyes that have overlapping, but slightly different colors–in this case cyan and yellow versions of GFP. The cyan is e...

Lipids get new comprehensive classification system

...ides. These categories are based on the functional backbone of the lipid molecule from a chemical standpoint. The categories are further subdivided into classes and subclasses to handle the existing and emerging arrays of lipid structures. In conjunction with their proposed lipid classification scheme, the g...

Researchers develop new method for facile identification of proteins in bacterial cells

...train RW1, the only bacterium known to consume the backbone of toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans as a food source. The researchers already knew that feeding dioxins to RW1 would cause an increased enzyme level as the bacterium consumed the model pollutant. Their study shows that this i...

Spiders help scientists discover how muscles relax

...ed around the filament's circumference surrounds a backbone made up of 12 parallel strands or sub-filaments. "This is the first time that the structure of the backbone has been clearly seen in any thick filament reconstruction," the researchers wrote. "The structure...

Gaining ground in the race against antibiotic resistance

...and the penicillins, which share a common chemical backbone called the alpha-lactam ring, work by disrupting the bacterial cell wall. Bacteria have evolved enzymes called alpha-lactamases, which chop the alpha-lactam ring in half, inactivating the drugs. An inhibitor for one type of lactamase has already been...

New technique could alter field of mouse genetics

...ing 23 years ago. The P element has since become a backbone of modern fruit fly genetics. Researchers in Xu's group first tried to adapt the P element for use in mice and to improve the efficiency of the Sleeping Beauty transposon system. When those efforts failed, they chose piggyBac because its enzyme look...

New book expands biological classifications to account for 'alien' life

...arbon-hydrogen-oxygen-nitrogen mixture that is the backbone of life on Earth. "To get to DNA life you had to go through non-DNA life, which we no longer have," Ward said. "But just because a type of life goes extinct doesn't mean you don't classify it. Otherwise you wouldn't have dinosaurs on the tree of lif...

USC researchers track down the stem cells that create feathers

...nterior side of the follicle, where the rachis-the backbone of the feather-arises. In the Nature paper, Chuong postulates that it is this simple tilting that can transform feathers from radially symmetric to bilaterally symmetric morphologies by producing molecular gradients and/or asymmetric cell behaviors. ...

GlycoFi announces the first production of antibodies with human glycosylation in yeast

... commercial counterpart, Rituxan®. The polypeptide backbone of each of the antibody variants produced in the GlycoFi yeast remained identical and only the glycosylation structures of each antibody was altered. Comparisons of the antibody variants with Rituxan® showed that antibody binding varied with changes ...

Tool developed to silence genes in specific tissues using RNAi

...nt "modules" that can be swapped in and out of the backbone of a vector. One is a small stem loop designed to complement the RNA produced by the gene they wish to silence, and the other is a "promoter" that provides expression specific to the tissue they want to target. "There are whole batteries of different...

The critical importance of mangroves to ocean life

Mangroves, the backbone of the tropical ocean coastlines, are far more important to the global ocean's biosphere than previously thought. And while the foul-smelling muddy forests may not have the scientific allure of tropical reefs or rain forests, a team of researchers ha...

Malignant melanoma cells secrete protein required for embryo formation

...e to induce ectopic (abnormal) embryonic skull and backbone (axes) formation. "This finding highlights the convergence of tumorigenic and embryonic signaling pathways. From a translational perspective, Nodal signaling provides a novel target for treatment of aggressive cancers such as melanomas," said Mary ...

UF scientists discover evolutionary origin of fins, limbs

...s sprouted, but at the midline that runs along the backbone and belly. This midline -- think of the dorsal, tail and anal fins of a fish - is where the genetic template to produce fins originated, about 100 million years before paired fins evolved and about 200 million years before paired fins evolved into...

Researchers offer clues to how leaves patterns are formed

... do," he said. "We now know that the veins are the backbone of the leaf and are somehow responsible for the final shape of the plant." But one of the biggest discoveries, perhaps the one with the most evolutionary implications, is that plants use the same mechanism to regulate vein formation in the leaf and ...

Links between DNA damage and breast cancer studied

...veal subtle conformational changes to DNA base and backbone structures. Such alterations to the molecular structure can change or disrupt gene expression. The team identified a unique oxidation-induced lesion in the DNA of breast epithelium, myoepithelium and stroma and found that the highest concentration...

Uncovering DNA's 'sweet' secret

...omo-DNA. Therefore, the nature of the sugar in the backbone affects the pairing rules." But despite homo-DNA...the steep angle, or inclination, between the sugar backbone and the bases of homo-DNA requires that the pairing strands align strictly in an antiparallel fashio...

Motor protein plays key role in connecting neurons

...ave found myosin X travels a portion of a neuron's backbone called the actin filament, a sort of two-way highway in the cell's highest traffic area, says Dr. Wen-Cheng Xiong, developmental neurobiologist at the Medical College of Georgia. Part of its cargo is DCC receptor which needs to move from the centr...

Can engineered immune cells stop AIDS?

...iviral vector," a type of retrovirus that uses the backbone of a virus to infect both dividing and nondividing cells. Wang says lentiviral vectors are very efficient delivery vehicles for human cells. Collaborators on his project are targeting hematopoietic stem cells -- the bone marrow cells that form bl...

Protein enables discovery of quantum effect in photosynthesis

...protein because of its structure : its ribbon-like backbone wraps around three clusters of seven chlorophylls, just like a taco shell around ground beef. The structure also is referred to as trimeric because of the three clusters. The protein, which comes from a photosynthetic bacterium that lives in ex...

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