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Tag: "axons" at biology news

“Nano-scissors?laser shows precise surgical capability

...gy“femtosecond?laser pulses to partially sever the axons of severalanesthetized C. elegans, a widely studie...without damaging surrounding tissue.?Once cut, the axons vaporized, and no other tissue was harmed.To assure the axons were actually cut, and their disappear...

Examination of internal 'wiring' of yeast, worm, and fly reveals conserved circuits

...fly that is involved in the guidance of nerve cell axons to their synaptic targets, or junctions, with other nerve cells. The process, considered an initial step in the development of the central nervous system, would not be needed by lower organisms, such as yeast, which don't have nerves. Ideker predict...

Liposome finding implies electrical effect on cell development

...ess involved in the development of structures like axons and dendrites in nerve cells. Hayes will present the results of the experiments at a 2 p.m. March 15 session entitled "Colloids in Complex Fluids" at the American Chemical Society meeting in San Diego. In the experiments, the researchers placed lip...

New component of the 'brakes' on nerve regeneration found

...hese molecules prevent the growth of the cablelike axons of injured neurons. Myelin is the fatty sheath that encases neurons and acts as an insulator and aid to the transmission of nerve impulses. Researchers knew that CNS neurons had receptors on their surface that accepted the inhibitory molecules--like...

Alzheimer's cognitive decline slowed

...o near-normal size and quantity, and also restored axons connecting the brain cells, essential for communication between cells. The recent human studies were a Phase I clinical trial, designed to test safety and toxicity. The procedure was initially performed while patients were awake but lightly sedated, ...

Cerebral navigation: How do nerve fibers know what direction to grow in?

...ips of growing axons, are responsible for steering axons in the right direction, guided by a complex set of...hey encounter along the way. Some signals lure the axons to extend and grow in a particular direction; others are inhibitory, making the axon turn away or st...

Molecular messengers perform a crucial role in the ability of injured nerve cells to heal themselves

...he peripheral nervous system can regrow when their axons are damaged. But how does the damaged axon inform the cell body that it must start producing vital proteins for the healing? That's precisely where the molecular messengers, proteins called Erk-1 and Erk-2, enter the picture. When the axon is injured...

Motor transport in bio-nano systems

...ged transport of vesicles and organelles along the axons between our nerve cells, which can be as long as h...ents within tube-like compartments, which resemble axons of nerve cells, see Figure 2, and radial arrangements of filaments within disk-like compartments, wh...

Deep sleep short-circuits brain's grid of connectivity

... by sending signals, waves that travel through the axons (nerve fibers) to other regions of the brain. At the same time, we can record how the rest of the brain is responding." The new technique promises science a way to see how the different areas of the brain communicate, Tononi says. Beyond helping il...

Frog peptides block HIV in lab study

... by sending signals, waves that travel through the axons (nerve fibers) to other regions of the brain. At the same time, we can record how the rest of the brain is responding." The new technique promises science a way to see how the different areas of the brain communicate, Tononi says. Beyond helping il...

Gradient guides nerve growth down spinal cord

...nerves. Unlike many other body components, damaged axons in the adult spinal cord cannot adequately repair ...pinal axon growth is still underway. Before birth, axons grow out from the cell body of a nerve cell in the motor cortex. The axons follow a path back throug...

Scientists discover the molecular switch for nerve cells' insulating jelly rolls

...s, to build elaborate sheaths of myelin around the axons of nerve cells. Axons are the long cable-like arms...n for almost 170 years that there are two kinds of axons --one is wrapped in myelin and appears white and the other is not and appears gray. Myelinated axons...

MIT researcher finds neuron growth in adult brain

...ve focused mostly on trying to regenerate the long axons damaged in spinal cord injuries, the new finding suggests targeting a different part of the cell: the dendrite. A dendrite, from the Greek word for tree, is a branched projection of a nerve cell that conducts electrical stimulation to the cell body. ...

How Fruitflies Know It's Time for Lunch

...ns, all located in the subesophageal ganglion. The axons of some of these hug neurons extend into the ring ...rucial metabolism and growth organ in flies. Other axons contact the protocerebrum, a structure close to brain centers for learning and remembering odors. A ...

Marathon of nano-sprinters

...nsmitted from one neuron to another. The length of axons is in the centimeter or even meter range; examples of relatively long axons are those that connect our spinal cord with the tips of our fingers and toes. Within such an axon, m...

Olfactory system detects pheromones that control reproduction

...n and infect its way upstream along the network of axons that connect neurons. The virus could also jump the synapses between neurons, as it moved from one neuron to the next. As a result, the researchers could use the pseudorabies virus to obtain a detailed look at all of the neurons that were connected t...

The brain is broadly wired for reproduction

...ituitary, other investigators have shown that GnRH axons can be found in many different areas of the brain," said Buck. "Those findings suggested that GnRH neurons were sending signals to other neurons, but the neurons that received the signals were unknown. Even more importantly for us, though certain bra...

RNA splicing occurs in nerve-cell dendrites

... chemical signals transmitted to the neuron by the axons of other neurons. The synapse is the neuronal structure where this chemical connection is formed, and investigators surmise that the synapse is where learning and memory occur. Researchers have long agreed that mRNA splicing takes place within the ...

Scientists crack code for motor neuron wiring

...njuries, much attention has focused on getting the axons of cortical neurons to grow past the lesion site a... this -- so all you need to do is get regenerating axons to grow past the site of the lesion. "Or, it could be that injury causes subtle alterations in the ...

New brain hormone puts brakes on reproduction

...in the nerves of the dorsomedial hypothalamus. The axons of these nerves project to numerous areas of the b...cells produce GnRH, and staining showed that these axons contacted GnRH-producing cells, suggesting direct effects. As in birds, GnIH also rapidly inhibits ...

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