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Tag: "axon" at biology news

3 proteins may play important role in nerve-cell repair

...onal evidence that cAMP plays an important role in axon growth and suggest that these receptors are likely to play a major role in regulating cAMP production in nerve cells," says Saeki, an associate professor of neurological surgery and chief of Ohio State's Dardinger Laboratory for Neuro-oncology and Ne...

Motor protein plays key role in connecting neurons

...n and spinal cord. When the kinase is deleted, the axon doesn't make the proper connections. When resea...ented that in late stages of development, when the axon needs to stop growing, a shorter molecule, minus the motor, is expressed. "Probably after the neuron...

Brain works more chaotically than previously thought

.... As soon as an electrical impulse runs through an axon cable, tiny bubbles containing glutamate travel to the axon membrane and release their content into the brain. Glutamate is one of the most important neurotrans...

Growth factor stimulates rapid extension of key motor neurons in brain

...specifically enhances both the speed and extent of axon outgrowth of corticospinal motor neurons are the f...interaction between IGF-1 and its receptor reduced axon growth to control levels, confirming that the IGF-1 pathway is critical to the enhancement effect. ...

Most important actors in the growth process of neurons identified

... of an axon's growth, three things can happen: the axon can grow further, pull back, or change direction. Therefore, axon growth is a process that consists of several components: growth of the axon, orientation, recognitio...

Mechanism for neurodenegerative diseases linked to transport proteins

...mutated protein in SBMA, caused inhibition of fast axon transport by activating an enzyme called JNK that can inhibit these transport proteins. Brady said this is the first proposed mechanism for polyQ diseases that explains why only nerve cells die and why the terminals die before the cell body. The lin...

Salk and Stanford teams join forces to reveal two paths of neurodegeneration

...ulated that the same molecular shears used to trim axon branches in injured adult axons also do so during ...k researchers observed, These findings show that axon degeneration after injury or developmental pruning requires different activities. "Superficially the...

New roles for growth factors: Enticing nerve cells to muscles

...rely on an entirely new set of molecules to govern axon navigation, but instead uses growth factors alread...pment will be missing." Hence the need to identify axon guidance factors. He continues, "It is not enough to make the right cell type, you need to connect t...

Spinal cord bridge bypasses injury to restore mobility

...id the medical community also assumed that the cut axon tips died when they hit the scar wall. In prior research in his lab by his graduate student, Tom, it was discovered that axons are alive and continue to attempt to grow for years. Silver describes them as "trucks stuck in mud going no where." It a...

Neurons grown from embryonic stem cells restore function in paralyzed rats

...emicals capable of overcoming signals that inhibit axon growth, and a nerve growth factor to attract axons to muscles. The report is published in the July 2006 issue of Annals of Neurology.* "This work is a remarkable advance that can help us understand how stem cells might be used to treat injuries and...

Newly identified protein complex sheds light on axon growth mechanism

...sheds light on the molecular mechanisms underlying axon growth and synapse formation in the nematode worm ...ng of vesicles along axons - a process that drives axon growth and helps synapse formation. The research also shows that UNC-69 is directly involved in the ...

Chemical signaling helps regulate sensory map formation in the brain

...in graded fashion in the brain and are involved in axon guidance. The A-class ephrins are required for map formation along the anterior-posterior (front-to-back) axis and the B-class for medial-lateral (side-to-side) axis. For several years, Zou's lab has been studying a different family of proteins, k...

Neuroscientists discover new cell type that may help brain maintain memories of smells

... multiphoton microscope allowed me to identify the axon and then follow it for long distances without damaging the Blanes cell. Once I could follow the axon as it coursed through the brain, it was relatively easy to see where it ended and where I should loo...

How nerve cells stay in shape

... A synapse has two parts: one originates from the axon of the sending cell, the other, from a dendrite of the receiving cell (see image 1). Both parts comprise a special set of molecules, which clearly distinguishes them from the rest of the cell. Furthermore, these contact sites can change structure and...

Telling axons where to go - and grow

... impact in neuronal growth cone actin dynamics and axon formation. The authors focus on the RING finger ...f6 in primary hippocampal neurons, which stimulate axon outgrowth, and by over-expression of Rnf6 that results in a significant decrease in axon length. ...

Scientists use gene transfer technology and common virus to block neuropathic pain

...inals in the animal's skin and carried through the axon back to the sensory ganglia cell bodies next to the spinal cord," says Shuanglin Hao, M.D., Ph.D., a U-M research investigator and first author of the study. "Since the vector lacks essential viral genes for replication, it remains in the nucleus ex...

Scientists use gene transfer technology and common virus to block neuropathic pain in animals

...inals in the animal's skin and carried through the axon back to the sensory ganglia cell bodies next to the spinal cord,?says Shuanglin Hao, M.D., Ph.D., a U-M research investigator and first author of the study. “Since the vector lacks essential viral genes for replication, it remains in the nucleus exp...

Gradient guides nerve growth down spinal cord

...sing a similar set of chemical signals to regulate axon traffic in both directions along the length of the...mplex network in newborn mice, where corticospinal axon growth is still underway. Before birth, axons grow out from the cell body of a nerve cell in the mot...

Molecular messengers perform a crucial role in the ability of injured nerve cells to heal themselves

... their axons are damaged. But how does the damaged axon inform the cell body that it must start producing ...alled Erk-1 and Erk-2, enter the picture. When the axon is injured, these proteins bind to molecules of phosphorus. In this phosphorylated state, they can c...

Cerebral navigation: How do nerve fibers know what direction to grow in?

...cular direction; others are inhibitory, making the axon turn away or stop growing. In two papers in the A... the axon's growth cone. But how this triggers the axon to change course or stop growing has been a mystery. "Very little has been known about the inner wo...

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