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Tag: "attacks" at biology news

Newly found sensing system enables certain bacteria to resist human immune defenses

...sm lets the bacteria protect itself by warding off attacks from antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which are defense molecules sent by the body to kill bacteria. Bacteria are divided into two types, gram-positive and gram-negative, with the primary difference being the nature of the bacterial cell wall. Little ...

Marine phytoplankton changes form to protect itself from different predators

...st what Phaeocystis does. Chemicals that signaled attacks from copepods suppressed the formation of colonies by 60 to 90 percent, while signals from ciliates enhanced colony formation by more than 25 percent. The transformations took place over periods of three to six days, and the overall size differenc...

Experimental gene therapy 'abolishes' arthritis pain and lessens joint damage

...ne immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a lentivirus that attacks the immune system of cats. It resembles HIV in humans, but is incapable of causing human infection. Despite the strong results, however, the team will seek to deliver the same gene therapy with a different vector in the next phase of experiments....

Genome of Clostridium botulinum reveals the background to world's deadliest toxin

... most important tool it has to act out its stealth attacks is its ability to hibernate when times are hard by forming dormant spores. More than 110 of its set of almost 3700 genes are used to control spore formation and germination when opportunity arises. "C. botulinum shows us one extreme of the wa...

Toxoplasmosis infection trick revealed by scientists

... before of exactly how the parasite recognises and attacks host cells in the body. Professor Steve Matthews from Imperial College London’s Division of Molecular Biosciences, one of the paper’s authors, explains the significance of the research, saying: "Understanding the fundamental, atomic-level detail ...

A new portable biosensor detects traces of contaminants in food more quickly and cheaply

...tify a virus or bacteria in the body. The organism attacks an infection by generating antibodies which hook onto, for example, a specific type of virus. Hence the virus is identified and may be eliminated. In the case of the sensors, specific antibodies for atrazine have been used (in the case of pesticides)...

Bats get the munchies too!

...toxicated bats may also be less able to respond to attacks from predators, and to avoid obstacles (much like us humans, some might say!). The sugar molecule, fructose, is known to reduce the toxicity of ethanol. Therefore, scientists investigated the effect of consuming fructose on ethanol toxicity in Egypti...

UCLA study uncovers clues for why Graves' disease attacks the eyes

...new clues that may explain why Graves?disease (GD) attacks the muscle tissue behind the eyes, often causing them to bulge painfully from their sockets, as in the late actor Marty Feldman. Scientists at UCLA’s Jules Stein Eye Institute and Harbor-UCLA Medical Center discovered defects in the infection-fighti...

Type of stem cell found to reside in transplanted lungs

...cells in various diseases, such as models of heart attacks and pulmonary fibrosis. The current study of MSCs included 172 bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples collected and analyzed from 76 lung transplant recipients at the U-M Health System. The ability to isolate these cells with relative ease from lava...

Are one-third of costly implanted heart devices unnecessary? New study suggests yes

...Cincinnati. All of the patients had survived heart attacks but had permanent damage to their heart muscle caused by lack of blood flow -- a condition called ischemic cardiomyopathy. Each patient received a test called microvolt T-wave alternans or MTWA, along with a battery of other tests, during their ev...

Scientists discover how body fights to control spread of cancer

...discovered that a small protein called galectin-3, attacks MUC1 and breaks up its protective shield, forcing large areas of the cancer cell to become exposed. The exposed areas of the cell allow the cancer to attach to the blood vessel wall. The cancer cells then eventually penetrate the blood wall to form ...

Antibody therapy prevents type 1 diabetes in mice

... an autoimmune disorder in which the body errantly attacks the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas, causing chronically elevated levels of sugar in the blood, leading to blindness, kidney failure, heart disease and nerve damage. Previously known as juvenile diabetes, type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed ...

UW launches study testing adult stem cells for heart damage repair

...ry disease, which can cause unstable angina, heart attacks and progressive heart failure when adequate blood ...ese blockages can result in a series of mini-heart attacks that, while they may be too small to notice at the time, in aggregate cause significant long-term da...

Scientists unveil piece of HIV protein that may be key to AIDS vaccine development

...t how many levels of defense the virus has against attacks by the immune system." For example, not only does HIV mutate rapidly and continuously—defeating attempts by the immune system to identify and destroy it—the virus is also swathed by sugary molecules. This nearly impenetrable sugar cloak prevents anti...

Exploring the molecular origin of blood clot flexibility

... that it does not block blood flow and cause heart attacks and strokes. In previous research, senior author John W. Weisel, PhD, Professor of Cell and Developmental Biology, measured the elastic properties of individual fibers and found that the fibers, which are long and very thin, bend much more easily t...

Genes and biomarkers that allow doctors to choose the right therapy for the right patient

...ent and outcomes." Cetuximab, an antibody that attacks the ability of cells to respond to the epidermal growth factor, has been previously shown to be effective in treating metastatic colorectal cancer. Dr. Laurent-Puig and his colleagues studied 114 patients who had been given cetuximab in combinat...

Gene therapy for blindness clears hurdle in mice

...th retinitis pigmentosa, an inherited disease that attacks the light-sensing cells in the eye. It affects about one in 60,000 people, with an estimated 1.5 million people afflicted worldwide. "One of the causes of the disease is mutated gene expression," said Marina Gorbatyuk, Ph.D., an assistant professo...

Researchers find hepatitis A and hepatitis C attack same protein to block immune defenses

...estruction by the immune system. Both dodge immune attacks by attacking the same protein ?an essential link in a chain of molecular signals that triggers antiviral responses. "With 30,000-plus proteins in the cell, it’s really remarkable that these two very different viruses have chosen to strike at the s...

New research shows that flu is a trigger of heart attacks

...isease and that flu can actually trigger the heart attacks that result in death. However, only about 60% of ...dy shows that flu is an important trigger of heart attacks because flu is a severe infection, with high incidence rates and is readily preventable. Therefore, ...

Researchers discover genetic cause for word-finding disease

...sease Center. "Here is a disease that specifically attacks the language part of the brain on the left side. What makes it so specific? How does the disease target the language areas?" "This finding will help us explore not just what causes the disease but the uniquely identifying features of human languag...

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