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Tag: "atomic" at biology news

Nicotine rush hinges on sugar in neurons

...ography. Homologs of nAChR had been studied at the atomic scale, but not the receptor itself....

Researchers track how spores break out of dormant state

...acterial spores, researchers have revealed through atomic force microscopy (AFM) the alterations of spore coat and germ cell wall that accompany the transformation from a spore to a vegetative cell. When starved of nutrients Bacillus (rod-shaped bacteria) cells initiate a series of genetic, biochemical and...

Toxoplasmosis infection trick revealed by scientists

...nd Geneva have determined, for the first time, the atomic structure of a key protein which is released onto the surface of the parasite just before it invades host cells in the human body. They found that the protein known as TgMIC1 binds to certain sugars on the surface of the host cell, assisting the para...

Decoding protein structures helps illuminate cause of diabetes

...d springs, constantly in motion, and their endless atomic twitching conveys information about their organization, Zanni says. Infrared laser beams can detect the minute vibrations and identify characteristic patterns to deduce protein structures. A few years ago, Zanni's team built the first device ca...

Columbia scientists determine 3-dimensional structure of cell's 'fuel gauge'

...e notes that this development in understanding the atomic resolution structure of the protein provides researchers a powerful new tool for the design of useful therapeutics. ...

Exploring the molecular origin of blood clot flexibility

...ngineered strands of fibrinogen molecules using an atomic force microscope. This alpha-helical coiled-coil "...the part to unfold under the stress induced by the atomic force microscope," notes Brown. Once the origins of the mechanical properties of clots are well u...

Meat and two neutrons -- the key to a longer life

...nforced with natural isotopes (naturally occurring atomic variations of elements). In initial experiments, worms' life spans were extended by 10%, which, with humans expected to routinely coast close to the centenary, could add a further 10 years to human life. Food enhanced with isotopes is thought to ...

A first glimpse of the influenza replication machine

...her with scientists at the IBS they visualized the atomic structure of the protein and discovered a previously overlooked signal that labels it for transport to the human nucleus where the genetic material of the virus is replicated. Cell microscopy studies at EMBL Heidelberg revealed that the human nuclear...

Faster, low cost sequencing technologies needed to drive era of personalized medicine

...le stranded DNA probes attached to a chip. An atomic force microscope (AFM), like a caffeinated speed reader, can then rapidly scan the surface of the chip to see where DNA from the sample has hybridized to the probes. Wherever sample DNA binds to the probes, the sequence is registered. "Traditiona...

Penn researcher shows that DNA gets kinky easily at the nanoscale

...emely small lengths. They used a technique called atomic force microscopy to determine the amount of energy...colleagues used a technique called high-resolution atomic force microscopy to obtain a direct measurement of the energy it would take to bend lengths of DNA j...

NHGRI aims to make DNA sequencing faster, more cost effective

...n a small area. Hybridization will be detected by atomic force microscopy. Carlos H. Mastrangelo, Ph.D., Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland,$815,000 (3 years),"Large-Scale Nanopore Arrays for DNA Sequencing" This team will aim to develop highly integrated arrays of nanopores that can be fabric...

Comprehensive model is first to map protein folding at atomic level

... to the folding problem, for small proteins, at an atomic level of detail." Fiendishly intricate, protein folding is crucial to the chemistry of life. Each of the body's 20 amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, is attracted or repulsed by water; it's largely these affinities that drive the contor...

Tiny Tampa Bay fish key to evolution of immune system

...studying these adaptive immune response proteins - atomic resolution," Ostrov said. That means scientists ... Ostrov said. "If we could take advantage of the atomic level structural features that we see, particularly those structural features at the stable core of ...

Fantastic Voyage: A new nanoscale view of the biological world

...and prisms manipulate visible light - to create an atomic mass image of the sample. Lechene et al. developed MIMS by combining the use of a novel secondary-ion mass spectrometer developed by Georges Slodzian, from the Université Paris-Sud in France, labeling with stable isotopes and building quantitative im...

New technique boosts size of proteins that can be analyzed

... section, which means that an oxygen atom (with an atomic weight of 16) was added. "When you isolate a protein from a mixture, your first problem is to know which one it is," said Fred McLafferty, Cornell's Peter J.W. Debye Professor Emeritus of Chemistry and Chemical Biology and senior author of the pape...

Molecular structure reveals how botulinum toxin attaches to nerve cells

...part through two of these RCEs has provided a rare atomic glimpse of the initial step one of these toxins takes to gain entry into human neurons. In an advanced online publication of the journal Nature, the scientists show structurally how botulinum neurotoxin B (one of seven toxins the bacterium prod...

A wolf in sheep's clothing: Plague bacteria reveal one of their virulence tricks

...oes this, proving the protein's mechanism from the atomic to the organismal level and providing a potential ...dies all the way down to what was happening at the atomic level." ...

Malaria vaccine prompts victims' immune system to eliminate parasite from mosquitoes

... on the surface of another, forming a molecular or atomic film.) The researchers also discovered that the ability of the mice to produce antibodies to the vaccine increased with time. In fact, the animals produced higher levels of antibodies when they were tested three and seven months after their initia...

USC team reveals structure of APOBEC family protein

...graduate student in Chen's lab, first revealed the atomic structure of the enzyme, the research team was surprised by the molecule's shape. "Based on what is known about proteins that catalyze a similar chemical reaction, we expected it to look more like a square. But instead, it resembles a butterfly," ...

With record resolution and sensitivity, tool images how life organizes in a cell membrane

...al composition of a sample, it fills a gap left by atomic force microscopy, which provides high-resolution i...hemical information content.'' Boxer's group used atomic force microscopy to locate interesting places and then employed the NanoSIMS 50 to determine what wa...

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