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Tag: "arose" at biology news

Caribbean frogs started with a single, ancient voyage on a raft from South America

...rican relatives of these Caribbean amphibians also arose from a single species that arrived by raft from South America. "This discovery is surprising because no previous theories of how the frogs arrived had predicted a single origin for Caribbean terrestrial frogs and because groups of close relatives ...

454 sequencing identifies HIV drug resistance at early stage

...d with a drug resistant HIV strain or if mutations arose in response to treatment. This research project examined samples from 258 subjects of the FIRST study, a large multi-center study conducted in the US comparing three different approaches to antiretroviral therapy. The FIRST study, which lasted 5 ...

Researchers publish first marsupial genome sequence

...of the key functional elements in the human genome arose during this relatively recent evolutionary period. By focusing on the recent genetic innovations, the scientists made two major findings: First, the vast majority (about 95 percent) of recent genetic innovation lies not in protein-coding genes,...

Spud origin controversy solved

...the Andean hypothesis supposed that these potatoes arose from crosses with Chilean potatoes as breeding stock after the Irish potato famine in the 1840s. Using molecular markers, the scientists found that the Canary Island landraces possessed both Andean and Chilean types, as well as possible hybrids of...

Despite their heft, many dinosaurs had surprisingly tiny genomes

..."In fact, our work shows these streamlined genomes arose long before the first birds and flight, and can be added to the list of dinosaur traits previously thought to be found only in modern birds, including feathers, pulmonary innovations, and parental care and nesting." Other researchers had previousl...

Study examines risk of soft tissue sarcomas in hereditary retinoblastoma survivors

...tinoblastoma diagnosis; 45 percent of the sarcomas arose 30 or more years after diagnosis. In addition, 18 of the 23 (78 percent) leiomyosarcomas were diagnosed 30 or more years after the diagnosis of retinoblastoma. Almost all sarcomas were diagnosed in retinoblastoma survivors who had been treated with r...

Prehistoric origins of stomach ulcers uncovered

...genetic differences between human populations that arose as they dispersed from Eastern Africa over thousands of years are mirrored in H. pylori. Human DNA analysis has shown that along the major land routes out of Africa human populations become genetically isolated - the further from Eastern Africa a...

Ancient amphibians evolved a bite before migrating to dry land

...lysis of the skulls of the first amphibians, which arose 375 million years ago, and their fish ancestors. The shapes of the junctions between adjacent skull bones -- termed "sutures" -- in the tops of these fish and amphibian skulls reveal how these extinct animals captured prey, say authors Molly J. Marke...

Cancer scientists create 'human' leukemia process to map how disease begins, progresses

... the leukemia gene we were using, the disease only arose from immature stem and progenitor cells. The leukemic stem cells that were created seemed to change as the human leukemia was grown for longer times in a series of transplanted mice. Our findings of how these leukemic stem cells functioned could expl...

Unicellular microRNA discovery

...cellular organisms suggests that the miRNA pathway arose before these lineages split, the lack of universally conserved miRNA genes in algae, plants and animals suggests that they may have evolved independently....

Novel experiment documents evolution of genome in near-real time

...at Mascoma Corp. in Lebanon, NH. All the mutants arose in the experiments presumably as the result of naturally occurring errors in copying DNA into daughter cells during cell division. The precise changes in the sequence of DNA subunits were determined with comparative genomic sequencing technology from...

Invasive ants territorial when neighbors are not kin

... the distinct supercolonies in southern California arose from separate introductions of the ants, possibly in the soil of plants used in landscaping. They hope that a better understanding of how the ants distinguish kin from non-kin, and the mechanisms that prevent gene flow between colonies, might lead ...

New clues to how sex evolves

...larities of the him and zim genes suggest they all arose from a common ancestor through gene duplication and subsequent selection. This inspired Dernburg and Phillips to look at similar genes in the related species C. remanei and C. briggsae. Like C. elegans, C. remanei has a total of four such genes, whil...

Researchers discover that sheep need retroviruses for reproduction

...ta of many mammals," he said. "The enJSRVs arose from ancient infections of small ruminants during their evolution," said. Dr. Massimo Palmarini, a virologist at The University of Glasgow Veterinary School. "This infection was beneficial to the host and was then positively selected for during evolu...

Beyond the book: Software automates access to brain atlases

...er development. "The entire design of our approach arose from practical methods" from Swanson's lab, according to the paper on the project Burns co-authored, published this month in the online journal BMC Bioinformatics. The NeuARt approach draws from a wide range of methods of displaying and orga...

Microbe fixes nitrogen at a blistering 92 C

... opposed to the theory that the nitrogenase system arose within archaea and was later transferred laterally to bacteria. "There's been lots of evidence that point to high-temperature archaea as the first life on Earth but the question has been, 'So why can’t we find archaea that fix nitrogen at high temp...

Male chimpanzees prefer mating with old females

...ristic may be an evolutionarily derived trait that arose in the human lineage sometime after the lineages giving rise to humans and chimpanzees diverged. ...

A new male-specific gene in algae unveils an origin of male and female

... In particular, it has remained unclear how oogamy arose from isogamy, a more simple form of sex in which very similar reproductive cells take on different "mating types" but do not differentiate as distinct sperm and egg. The transition from isogamy to oogamy has apparently occurred multiple times during ...

Sunflower speciation highlights roles for transposable elements in evolution

...d that the genomes of three sunflower species that arose in evolution as hybrids of the same two parental types have undergone a massive proliferation of genetic entities known as transposable elements. The findings are reported by Mark Ungerer and colleagues at Kansas State University and appear in the Oc...

Study offers window into human behavior, brain disease

...evelop dementia before age 65. Because the cells arose only recently in evolutionary history -- in a common ancestor of great apes and humans-- and are particularly abundant in humans, and the finding supports the concept that evolution has rendered the human brain vulnerable to disease, including fronto...

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