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Tag: "apart" at biology news

Timing is everything: First step in protein building revealed

...e come together,and how long it takes them to fall apart under various circumstances.Their results support the idea that two separate steps take place oncethe instruction's starting point is found: first a structural change inthe ribosome complex, and then release of eIF1.Lorsch's goal is know the five "Ws...

Needling Chromosomes Reveals Cell Division Secret

...ide properly. In this process chromatids are drawn apart to separate poles of the dividing cell so that eac... to pullthem apart. Upon release, if they remained apart it revealed they wereseparated; but if they snapped back together the researchers would knowthe chro...

Discovery of key protein's shape could lead to improved bacterial pneumonia vaccine

...oks like and how it’s put together, we can pull it apart to see ifsmaller pieces of it can be used to make a vaccine that triggersproduction of antibodies against the CbpA. Since all the S. pneumoniaestrains need CbpA to invade the bloodstream, we can widen theprotection of a vaccine to all 90 types of pne...

New comparative toxicogenomics database

...oks like and how it’s put together, we can pull it apart to see ifsmaller pieces of it can be used to make a vaccine that triggersproduction of antibodies against the CbpA. Since all the S. pneumoniaestrains need CbpA to invade the bloodstream, we can widen theprotection of a vaccine to all 90 types of pne...

Scientists document complex genomic events leading to the birth of new genes

...the RGP gene cluster may help to explain what sets apart humans and other primates from the rest of the animal kingdom. Human chromosome 2 has always intrigued primate biologists; it formed from the fusion of two mid-sized ape chromosomes and is the only cytogenetic distinction separating humans from ape...

Viral protein influences key cell-signaling pathway

... proliferation of T lymphocytes. This sets HTLV-1 apart from HIV, Lairmore says. "Unlike HIV, which kills cells and destroys the immune system, HTLV-1 enhances the survival of T cells." But scientists don't understand how it prolongs T-cell survival and causes their proliferation. This study's findings ...

Advances in the characterisation of the oyster mushroom genes

The oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus), apart from reducing cholesterol and having anticancerogenic properties, is characterised for its capacity for breaking down cellulose. Finding out which genes are responsible for this activity ?the reason why the fungus is sometimes used as a decontaminati...

Researchers uncover sequence of major rice pathogen

... clusters, Dean says, so one focus will be to take apart the clusters and learn more about toxins and their production. "The primary mission is to uncover the organism's weaknesses. You do that by building up an arsenal of information of what genes are involved in plant-pathogen interactions," Dean says. ...

Scientists discover that three overlapping signals in embryo help get the backbone right

... 20 years that it has been possible to tease these apart cleanly and develop assays that are good enough to find the molecules involved in the normal process," Harland said. Postdoctoral fellow Bill Smith and Harland found the first of these BMP antagonists, noggin, in 1992, confirming its activity by rep...

Measuring Enzymes At End Of Cancer Pathway Predicts Outcome Of Tarceva, Taxol

...mbly of the spindle that pulls nuclear chromosomes apart during cell division, Ueno and his colleagues have recently reported that increased activity of CDK1 correlated with a cell's sensitivity to Taxol. The CDK enzyme plays a role in cell division, and researchers believe that it functions in part as a ...

Gov't Creates Gene Database of Normal Human Tissues

...ellum are two distinct parts of the brain, located apart from each other and doing very different jobs, their gene expression profiles reflected their commonality as part of the nervous system. Similarly, "muscle contraction" genes were found in skeletal muscle, smooth muscle tissue, and the heart -- all o...

An (ecological) origin of species for tropical reef fish

...nds of miles apart. Wrasses collected only 360 km apart along the Brazilian coast were genetically more distinct than were fish collected 4200 km apart, from Fernando de Noronha island off of the Brazilian coast and St. Croix in the Caribbean. The fact that evolutionary partitions correspond more closely...

Chemical Engineer Kao Explores Antibiotic Synthesis With DNA Chips

...ons. Reverse engineering involves taking something apart to see how it works. For Kao, it means asking how one strain of Saccharopolyspora erythraea produces ten times the erythromycin of normal strains. The answer, it seems, lies not in the cluster of genes known to produce the antibiotic, but in a mutat...

Understanding how bacteria communicate may help scientists prevent disease

...We are asking, what are the environmental signals, apart from quorum sensing, that are integrated by the small RNAs to initiate changes in behavior. An example might be the amount of nutrients in the environment. Another question is why are there multiple RNAs? The sensing and communication circuit functio...

Scientists discover global pattern of big fish diversity in open oceans

...argest and least known part of our planet. Teasing apart the effects of climate change and fishing over the past 50 years, the authors show a clear link to overfishing and highlight a surprising global pattern of open ocean hotspots - areas with predictable congregations of tuna, marlin, swordfish, and oth...

Lance Armstrong through a physiological lens: hard training boosts muscle power 8%

...hange in endurance performance when tested 2 weeks apart with no sprint training intervention." In addition, though previous studies showed increases in citrate synthase (CS) activity and glycogen content after several weeks of sprint interval training with equivocal data, "we show here that the total trai...

A vaccine to kill tapeworm

...k. At the moment, two vaccinations about one month apart provide several months of immunity. The team's aim is to provide lifelong immunity with one or two shots, though they say the vaccine will still be beneficial even it has to be given yearly. There is no reason why the vaccine would not work in peopl...

One bacteria stops another on contact

...ve. You might call them dead, but they don't break apart the way dead cells do. These cells appear to stay intact, perhaps in a quiescent mode, or dormant state." Aoki explained, "We are currently exploring how contact between bacteria can inhibit cell growth �� and determining what this contact-dependent...

Researchers create functioning artificial proteins using nature's rules

... that, at least in a test tube, we can't tell them apart from natural proteins." Dr. Ranganathan said there could still be many small differences between the artificial proteins and the natural ones, and further testing would need to be done to determine whether they work within an actual organism. "Ou...

Neanderthal teeth grew no faster than comparable modern humans'

...ly prominent brows and missing chins that set them apart from later humans. They thrived from about 150,000 to 30,000 years ago until their lineage failed for as-yet unknown reasons. Most researchers have argued that their life in extremely harsh, Ice Age-like environments, coupled with their limited tec...

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