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Tag: "amino" at biology news

Research advances quest for HIV-1 vaccine

...ecognizes. The researchers identified the specific amino acids on gp41 that 4E10 interacts with and the 3D structure adopted by these amino acids. These study results suggest that 4E10 interacts with gp41 at a conserved region very close to...

Scientists find missing enzyme for tuberculosis iron scavenging pathway

...e aminoglycoside antibiotics have sugar rings with amino groups attached," explains Dr. Baker. "The N-acetyltransferase chemically modifies the sugar amino group by transferring an acetyl group to it. This inactivates the antibiotic because it can no longe...

A bacterial genome reveals new targets to combat infectious disease

...made by its host. Conversely, it cannot synthesize amino acids and a variety of other vitamins and cofactors, and probably depends on the nematode to supply them. One discovery of possible significance is the presence in the bacterium of the synthetic pathway for heme - the oxygen-carrying iron component ...

Researchers identify target for cancer drugs

...t by adding a phosphate group to a sequence of its amino acids (a process called "phosphorylation"). This process occurs not only in human cells but in other organisms such as the fruit fly. Finding this complex conserved in species as diverse as flies and humans supports the claim that the mTOR/rictor co...

Amino acids in nectar enhance butterfly fecundity: A long awaited link

...ated by butterflies contain substantial amounts of amino acids. Recent experiments have shown that butterflies actually prefer nectars with a high amino acid content. These findings led to speculations about the significance of nectar amino acids for bu...

The Shapes Of Life: NIGMS Project Yields More Than 1,000 Protein Structures

...s of the structures of other proteins with related amino acid sequences. Although the main focus of the second phase of the PSI will be on solving protein structures, Norvell said there will be continued development of new technology: “As we reach for higher-hanging fruit ?protein structures that are more...

Scientists solve structure of key protein in innate immune response

... that CD14 has a large hydrophobic pocket near its amino terminus," says Dr. Lee. "We propose that this poc...ause previous biochemical studies demonstrate that amino acid residues comprising the pocket are critical for LPS binding. Most, if not all, of the CD14 liga...

Fibril Shape Is The Basis Of Prion Strains And Cross-species Prion Infection

... could be defined by differences in the underlying amino acid sequences of the prions. Under this scenario,... be more likely between species with similar prion amino acid sequences. But a few mysteries stood in the way: Some individuals harbored several different p...

McGill researchers shed light on formation of carcinogen in food

...icultural and Food Chemistry, shows how food-based amino acids and sugars break down when heated to produce...s. "Furan and its derivatives sometimes form when amino acids or sugars are broken down by the heat of cooking," explains Dr. Yaylayan. "Normally, furan is ...

Multi-purpose protein regulates new protein synthesis and immune cell development

... reticulum (ER). The process begins with chains of amino acids, which are deposited in the ER membrane in r...ructions from genes. Chaperone proteins fold these amino acid chains into specific shapes and direct them to different areas of the ER for processing. When ...

Researchers make gains in understanding antibiotic resistance

...ormation on messenger RNA into the long strings of amino acids called polypeptides that are used to build the cell's enzymatic machinery. "These antibiotics are clinically very important, and resistance to such antibiotics is a major health problem," said Steitz. "It is becoming critical to understand the...

Revolutionary nanotechnology illuminates brain cells at work

...t specifically bind metabolites such as sugars and amino acids. A protein of interest is genetically fused with two differently colored tags made from variants of the jellyfish Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP). The colored tags are placed at each end of the molecule making a "biosensor." When the substance ...

Oldest fossil human protein ever sequenced

...his age and remarkable to be able to determine the amino acid sequence of this protein. Protein sequences ... sequence difference is at position nine where the amino acid hydroxyproline is replaced by proline. The authors suggest that this is a dietary response, as...

Conserved amino acids play both structural and mechanistic roles in sandwich-like protein

The question of whether amino acids in sandwich-like proteins are there to stabi...andwich-like structure consisting of two sheets of amino acids meshed together. Nearly 70 superfamilies of proteins of varying makeup have this sandwich-like...

Nature provides inspiration for important new adhesive

...abundant level of a phenolic hydroxyl group and an amino group - that results in the ability of mussels to ...inexpensive and renewable, but it lacks the unique amino acid with phenolic hydroxyl groups that provide adhesive properties. Li's research group was able to...

To Stop Evolution: New Way Of Fighting Antibiotic Resistance Demonstrated By Scripps Scientists

...known as serine proteases and works by cutting the amino acid chain of other proteins. Romesberg and his colleagues showed that LexA's action was necessary for the evolution of resistance to the antibiotics in vitro. The effect in vivo was dramatic. Blocking LexA in rodent models of E. coli infections hal...

Newly Discovered 'Branding' Process Helps Immune System Cells Pick Their Fights

...s. For example, they attach a nitrate group to the amino acid tyrosine in the peptides, changing it to nitrotyrosine. Unanue's lab then showed that these changes increased the chances that various types of T cells would react to the modified peptides shown to them by antigen-presenting cells. Unanue's gr...

How A Latent Virus Eludes Immune Defenses

...protein produced by EBV, called EBNA-1, harbors an amino acid element in its epitope—the region that binds ...s that could destroy it. Lab studies show that the amino acid element limits EBNA-1’s interaction with T cells by inhibiting synthesis and, to a lesser degre...

Touching Molecules With Your Bare Hands

...protein produced by EBV, called EBNA-1, harbors an amino acid element in its epitope—the region that binds ...s that could destroy it. Lab studies show that the amino acid element limits EBNA-1’s interaction with T cells by inhibiting synthesis and, to a lesser degre...

Scientists analyze chromosomes 2 and 4

...or a muscle protein, called titin, which is 33,000 amino acids long. One of the central goals of the effort to analyze the human genome is the identification of all genes, which are generally defined as stretches of DNA that code for particular proteins. The new analysis confirmed the existence of 1,346 p...

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