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Tag: "alzheimer" at biology news

Neuronal 'traffic jam' marks early Alzheimer's disease

Early Alzheimer's disease may be precipitated by a "traffic jam" within neurons that causes swelling and prevents proper transport of proteins and structures in the cells, according to new studies by Howard Hughes Medical Institute researchers. .. In mouse models of Alzheimer's disease and in human brain samples from people with the disease, researchers observed a characteristic breakdown in neur...

Mouse brain cells rapidly recover after Alzheimer's plaques are cleared

Brain cells in a mouse model of Alzheimer's.disease have surprised scientists with their ability to recuperate.after the disorder's characteristic brain plaques are removed..Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis.injected mice with an antibody for a key component of brain plaques,.the amyloid beta (Abeta) peptide. In areas of the brain where.antibodies cleared plaque...

Gene vaccine for Alzheimer's disease shows promising results

UT Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas.researchers have found a way of stimulating the immune systems of mice.to fight against amyloid proteins that cause the devastating plaques.that are characteristic of Alzheimer's disease..For years scientists have examined the possibility of using a.protein-based vaccine to slow the progression of the disease in its.early stages. UT Southwestern researcher...

Duke Chemists Isolating Individual Molecules Of Toxic Protein In Alzheimer's, Parkinson's Disease

To understand the formation of the brain-clogging deposits that cause such disorders as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, Duke University chemists have figured out how to capture and "micromanipulate" the single molecular building blocks of the deposits. . .. The researchers led by Boris Akhremitchev are using the infinitesimal tip of a customized atomic force microscope (AFM) to captur...

Nanoscale Diagnostic Sets Sights on Alzheimer's

Using their novel bio-bar-code amplification (BCA) technology, researchers analyzing fluid from around the brain and spinal cord have detected a protein linked in recent studies to Alzheimer's disease. .. .. .- .- <a href="http://www...

Alzheimer's cognitive decline slowed

PET scans and cognitive tests have suggested that Alzheimer's disease patients with genetically modified tissue inserted directly into their brains show a reduction in the rate of cognitive decline and increased metabolic activity in the brain, according to a study published in the April 24, 2005 online issue of the journal Nature Medicine by researchers at the University of California, San Diego...

One gene links newborn neurons with those that die in diseases such as Alzheimer's

In certain parts of the brain, cells called neurons go through a cycle of death and replenishment. New research from Rockefeller University's Fernando Nottebohm, Ph.D., shows that these replaceable neurons share something in common with the neurons that die in people with diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's: both have unusually low levels of a protein called UCHL1. . "It would be ironic...

Scientists discover that three molecules may be developed into new Alzheimer's drugs

A team of scientists has discovered three molecules –?from a search of 58,000 compounds –?that appear to inhibit a key perpetrator of Alzheimer's disease. . .. Ken Kosik, co-director of the Neuroscience Research Institute at the University of California, Santa Barbara, headed the effort to find these molecules. The results of the study are published in the July issue of...

Pinpointing a culprit molecule in Alzheimer's disease

One puzzle in Alzheimer's disease (AD) research is why mice engineered to have the abnormal protein underlying the disease in humans show little pathology of the disease. Specifically, such mice are genetically altered to overproduce mutant human amyloid precursor protein (APP). It is this protein that, when clipped by enzymes, produces the amyloid beta (Ab) peptide that clusters into the amyloid...

A sweet solution for Alzheimer's disease?

Certain variants of a simple sugar ameliorate Alzheimer's-like disease in mice, according to a new study by Canadian researchers. Although the new studies are still in the early stages, the findings could lead to new therapies that prevent or delay the onset of Alzheimer's disease. . The new studies show that some types of a sugar called cyclohexanehexol--also known as inositol--prevented the acc...

Targeting a key enzyme with gene therapy reversed course of Alzheimer's disease in mouse models

Silencing Alzheimer's: targeting a key enzyme with gene therapy reversed course of disease in mouse modelsIn mice, that had been genetically engineered to develop Alzheimer's disease, scientists were able to reverse the rodents' memory loss by reducing the amount of an enzyme that is crucial for the development of Alzheimer's disease. . "What we are showing is a proof of principle that stopping t...

Hope for Alzheimer's blossoms

A substance found in the Welsh national flower, which could offer hope for sufferers of Alzheimer's disease, is being supported for large scale manufacture by Cardiff University's Manufacturing Engineering Centre (MEC). . .. Certain species of daffodil, which thrive in the Black Mountains of South Powys, produce galanthamine, a leading drug in the alleviation of memory loss symptoms.</...

Natural compound from 'pond scum' shows potential activity against Alzheimer's

A compound isolated from a cyanobacterium, a type of blue-green algae known as Nostoc, shows promise of becoming a natural drug candidate for fighting Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases, according to an in vitro study by researchers in Switzerland. It is believed to be the first time that a potent agent against Alzheimer's has been isolated from cyanobacteria, commonly known as 'pon...

DNA gene vaccine protects against harmful protein of Alzheimer's disease

Doses of DNA-gene-coated gold particles protect mice against a protein implicated in Alzheimer's disease, researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center have found. . .. "The whole point of the study is to determine whether the antibody is therapeutically effective as a means to inhibit the formatio...

New compound stops brain cell degeneration in Alzheimer's disease

Drug discovery researchers at Northwestern University have developed a novel orally administered compound specifically targeted to suppress brain cell inflammation and neuron loss associated with Alzheimer's disease. . .. As described in the Jan. 11 issue of the Journal of Neuroscience, the compound, called MW01-5-188WH, selectively inhibits production of pro-inflammatory proteins called cytokine...

Researchers discover a new genetic cause of Alzheimer's disease

Researchers from the Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology (VIB) connected to the University of Antwerp are the first to show that the quantity of amyloid protein in brain cells is a major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. Amyloid protein has already been known to be the primary component of the senile plaques in the brains of patients. The new discovery demonstrates that the gr...

Alzheimer's study first to explain death of brain cells

Researchers at Children's Hospital & Research Center at Oakland (CHRCO) have published a new study that is the first to explain how brain cells die in patients with Alzheimer's Disease. This discovery is an important first step to helping researchers devise ways to slow, prevent and eventually cure a disease that affects an estimated 4.5 million Americans. . In a study published in the Febru...

Key heart and Alzheimer's disease protein imaged for first time in native state

Researchers for the first time have created a three-dimensional image of apolipoprotein E, a protein long associated with cardiovascular disease and more recently with Alzheimer's disease, as it appears when it is bound to fat-like substances known as lipids. . .. The work focuses apoE4, one of three specific forms of apolipoprotein E, commonly known as apoE. The breakthroug...

Alzheimer's found to be mostly genetic

Alzheimer disease has a genetic cause in up to 80 percent of cases, according to a University of Southern California-led study of nearly 12,000 twin pairs. . .. Margaret Gatz, professor of psychology in the USC College of Letters, Arts, and Sciences, led an international team of researchers from Göteborg University, Jönköping University and Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, as well as from USC, th...

Blood flow in brain takes a twist, affecting views of Alzheimer's

New findings that long-overlooked brain cells play an important role in regulating blood flow in the brain call into question one of the basic assumptions underlying today's most sophisticated brain imaging techniques and could open a new frontier when it comes to understanding Alzheimer's disease. . In a paper to appear in the February issue of Nature Neuroscience and now available on-line, scie...

Imaging study links key genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease to myelin breakdown

A new UCLA imaging study shows that age-related breakdown of myelin, the fatty insulation coating the brain's internal wiring, correlates strongly with the presence of a key genetic risk factor for Alzheimer disease. . .. In addition, the study demonstrates how genetic testing coupled with non-invasive evaluation of myelin breakdown through magneti...

Experimental drug reverses key cognitive deficits, pathology in Alzheimer's

A new drug that enhances the activity of a key brain cell receptor involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD) reverses learning and memory deficits in mice engineered to have pathological hallmarks of the disease. What's more, the drug, called AF267B, reduces both of the pathologies--the brain-clogging buildup of protein "amyloid plaque" outside brain cells and the protein "neurofibrillary tangles" ins...

Production of key Alzheimer's protein monitored for first time in humans

Science is now poised to answer an important and longstanding question about the origins of Alzheimer's disease: Do Alzheimer's patients have high levels of a brain protein because they make too much of it or because they can't clear it from their brains quickly enough? . Researchers from the Alzheimer's Disease Research Center (ADRC) at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have...

Key stress protein linked to toxicities responsible for Parkinson's, Alzheimer's

Researchers at the Burnham Institute for Medical Research have discovered a mechanistic link between cellular stress caused by free radicals and accumulation of misfolded proteins that lead to nerve cell injury and death in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease. . That link is Protein Disulphide Isomerase (PDI), a chaperone protein that is necessary for proper...

Brain enzyme treatment relieves memory lapse in Alzheimer's mice

An enzyme that helps neurons rid themselves of excess or aberrant proteins is required for normal brain function, according to a new report in the August 25, 2006 issue of the journal Cell, published by Cell Press. What's more, by increasing brain levels of the enzyme in mice with Alzheimer's symptoms, the researchers found they could reverse lapses of memory characteristic of the debilitating di...

Computer-based 'games' enhance mental function in patients with Alzheimer's

Computer-based tasks aimed at increasing mental activity and enhancing mental function can improve cognition in patients with Alzheimer's disease, serving as an effective addition to medications commonly used to treat the disease. Researchers found that the internet-accessible computer activities were even more successful than classic exercises of mental stimulation commonly used with dementia pa...

Insulin receptor stops progression of Alzheimer's disease

Stimulation of a receptor in the brain that controls insulin responses has been shown to halt or diminish the neurodegeneration of Alzheimer's disease, providing evidence that the disease can be treated in its early stages, according to a study by researchers at Rhode Island Hospital and Brown Medical School. . Researchers have found that peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) agonist...

Enzyme shreds Alzheimer's protein

An enzyme found naturally in the brain snips apart the protein that forms the sludge called amyloid plaque that is one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), researchers have found. They said their findings in mice suggest that the protein, called Cathepsin B (CatB), is a key part of a protective mechanism that may fail in some forms of AD. Also, they said their findings suggest that drugs...

Protein 'fingerprint' in spinal fluid could spot Alzheimer's disease

Scientists collaborating at Cornell University in Ithaca and Weill Cornell Medical College in New York City have identified a panel of 23 protein biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid that acts as a neurochemical "fingerprint," which doctors might use someday to identify patients living with Alzheimer's disease. . .. Right now, physicians rely on their clinical judgment to decide whether a particular...

Blocking immune cell action increases Alzheimer's-associated protein deposits

The immune system's response against amyloid-beta, the protein that forms plaques in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease, appears to protect the brain from damage in early stages of the devastating neurological disorder. A report from Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) researchers finds that lack of a protein required for recruitment of the brain's primary immune cell led to increa...

Scientists discover a new risk factor for Alzheimer's

Researchers led by Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) international research scholar Peter St George-Hyslop have identified a new genetic risk factor associated with the most common form of Alzheimer's disease. The research implicates a gene called SORL1 in late-onset Alzheimer's, which usually strikes after age 65. . In an advance online publication in Nature Genetics on January 14, 2007, S...

Scientists find new genetic clue to cause of Alzheimer's disease

Variations in a gene known as SORL1 may be a factor in the development of late onset Alzheimer's disease, an international team of researchers has discovered. The genetic clue, which could lead to a better understanding of one cause of Alzheimer's, is reported in Nature Genetics online, Jan. 14, 2007, and was supported in part by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). . The researchers suggest...

Proteins important in Alzheimer's, Parkinson's disease travel in the slow lane

Using a novel video-imaging system, researchers at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine have been able to observe proteins important in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease moving along axons, extensions of nerve cells that carry proteins away from the cell body. Understanding this process of axonal transport is important for studying many neurodegenerative diseases. The study appeare...

Study shows hope for early diagnosis of Alzheimer's

Research by faculty and staff at Rowan University, Glassboro, N.J.; the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine; and Drexel University may lead to better diagnosis of early-stage Alzheimer’s disease. . In a $1.1-million National Institutes of Health’s National Institute on Aging study that team members conducted during the last three years, they determined early Alzheimer’s could be diagnos...

Cold sore virus might play role in Alzheimer's disease

A gene known to be a major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease puts out the welcome mat for the virus that causes cold sores, allowing the virus to be more active in the brain compared to other forms of the gene. The new findings, published online in the journal Neurobiology of Aging, add some scientific heft to the idea, long suspected by some scientists, that herpes somehow plays a role in brin...

Study examines genetic risk factors for Alzheimer's disease

Cardiff University researchers have found evidence for new genes involved in the development of Alzheimer’s disease. . .. .. Professor Julie Williams, School of Medicine, who leads this project with Professor Mich...

Statin treatment improves spatial memory in mouse models of Alzheimer's

Treatment with Simvastatin, one of the statin drugs widely used for lowering cholesterol in humans, significantly improved spatial memory - how to navigate a water maze - in mice genetically bred to have an Alzheimer’s like disease. Although statin improved memory in both males and females, the results were more pronounced in males. . Dr. H. A. Morcos, chair of Pharmacology at the American Univer...

Newly discovered antibody may be body's natural defense against Alzheimer's

. The newly found antibodies selectively target aggregates of beta amyloid proteins called "oligomers" that are toxic to brain cells, while ignoring the benign single-molecule forms of the same proteins. The existence of such antibodies was predicted by animal studies, but they...

Alzheimer's disease to quadruple worldwide by 2050

More than 26 million people worldwide were estimated to be living with Alzheimer’s disease in 2006, according to a study led by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. The researchers also concluded the global prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease will grow to more than 106 million by 2050. By that time, 43 percent of those with Alzheimer’s disease will need high-level ca...

Research team identifies new Alzheimer's gene

A study comparing more genetic markers in the DNA of people with and without Alzheimer’s disease than ever before has enabled researchers to identify a common gene that appears to increase a person’s risk for developing Alzheimer’s disease. The finding, announced today by researchers at the Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen), Banner Alzheimer’s Institute, Kronos Science Laboratory...
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