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Wisconsin scientists grow critical nerve cells

...ily differentiate in linear fashion, as scientists always believed. Rather, a series of complex overlapping changes may well be the developmental norm in higher vertebrates such as humans. "We cannot simply translate studies from animal to humans," says Zhang. The next step, Li says, will be to test if th...

It's not all genetic: Common epigenetic problem doubles cancer risk in mice

...g. For IGF2, the copy inherited from the mother is always supposed to be turned off. In the mice and in some people, however, cells lack the epigenetic "marks" that sit on the DNA and keep the maternally inherited copy turned off. As a result, cells make a double dose of the IGF2 protein and are said to ha...

Growth in the sea comes down to a struggle for iron

...aine oceanographer Mark Wells. And diatoms may not always come out on top. In collaboration with a large Japanese research program, Wells and a team of scientists from UMaine and other universities are studying the fate of iron in marine waters. Their findings could help determine the fate of something els...

Ecological destruction fuels emerging diseases

... we call that management," says Dr. Brooks. "We're always behind the curve, because we don't know where these things are coming from." In fact, while parasites like malaria are well known, we may have identified only a fraction of the total number of the world's parasites, and the prospect of cataloguing t...

Mouse brain tumors mimic those in human genetic disorder

...of tumorprogression, it is unclear whether that is always the case,particularly in optic pathway gliomas associated with NF1.Results from this latest study suggest that the two are not necessarilycorrelated. Gutmann's team found that optic pathway gliomas lit up justas brightly in 2-month-old mice as in 8-m...

Scientists collaborate to assess health of global environment

...to jeopardize more subtle services that nature has always provided free of charge, he said. Making matters worse, he added, the world's poorest people stand to lose the most from environmental change, because they depend heavily on ecosystem services. In some places, such as sub-Saharan Africa, environmenta...

Discovery of key protein's shape could lead to improved bacterial pneumonia vaccine

...pneumoniabacteria,?Tuomanen said. “So children are always under-protected,since there are so many different strains of these bacteria.?Knowingthe shape of CbpA will guide researchers in their efforts to use partor all of this protein as the basis of a vaccine against S. pneumoniae.“CbpA is a very large prot...

Critical role in programmed cell death identified

...s form, but 131 of these cells die; the same cells always die at the same time and at the same place. This feature makes it possible to identify mutant worms, in which cells that should have died instead live. Worms whose cell death program is blocked survive, at least in the lab, with their 131 extra cells...

New comparative toxicogenomics database

...pneumoniabacteria,?Tuomanen said. “So children are always under-protected,since there are so many different strains of these bacteria.?Knowingthe shape of CbpA will guide researchers in their efforts to use partor all of this protein as the basis of a vaccine against S. pneumoniae.“CbpA is a very large prot...

Same mutation aided evolution in many fish species, Stanford study finds

...world that can reveal whether particular genes are always reused when the animals adapt to new conditions, or if evolution has other tricks up its sleeve to push organisms towards an optimal form for their environment. Other Stanford researchers who participated in the study include graduate students Pamel...

Development of portable infectious disease detector

... treatment for AIDS is very expensive and there is always aquestion about when to start and stop anti-retroviral therapy," saysPria's Chief Technology Officer Jason Pyle. "We are developing a devicethat we hope will allow medical professionals and HIV patients tomanage their disease in a way that is similar...

Scientists document complex genomic events leading to the birth of new genes

...st of the animal kingdom. Human chromosome 2 has always intrigued primate biologists; it formed from the fusion of two mid-sized ape chromosomes and is the only cytogenetic distinction separating humans from apes. At the molecular level, however, the differences among the species are much more complex. B...

International trial of two microbicides begins

...t from heterosexual intercourse, but women may not always be able to insist that their male partners use measures to prevent HIV transmission," notes NIAID Director Anthony S. Fauci, M.D. "If effective, microbicides would be a valuable woman-controlled means of slowing the pace of the HIV/AIDS epidemic," Dr...

MetaChip provides quick, efficient toxicity screening of potential drugs

...t from heterosexual intercourse, but women may not always be able to insist that their male partners use measures to prevent HIV transmission," notes NIAID Director Anthony S. Fauci, M.D. "If effective, microbicides would be a valuable woman-controlled means of slowing the pace of the HIV/AIDS epidemic," Dr...

Tiny scaffolding allows stem cells to become working fat cells

...hin those cells," Kniss said. "And that biology is always translated into changes in gene expression and assemblies of proteins." That is why the three-dimensional scaffolding for cell growth in the laboratory is so important. The researchers' focus on fat cells as a test bed for this approach to cell grow...

Plants defy Mendel's inheritance laws, may prompt textbook changes

...rst clue that the classic inheritance rules didn't always apply was the discovery of normal flowers on some offspring of mutant plants. In the deformed parents, the flowers were fused into tight balls. But in the grandparents and 10 percent of the grandchildren, the buds become 1-millimeter-long, bright whi...

X-Ray Beams And Fruit Fly 'Flight Simulator' Aid Scientists' View Of Muscle Power

...arkably similar,?Maughan said. “We biologists have always been amazed by how hard these muscles work. Now we have taken advantage of the fruit fly’s small size and shone light right through the whole animal, illuminating the working muscles during flight and probing the molecular motions deep within the mus...

New Treatment Rivals Chemotherapy For Lymphoma, Study Finds

...y have a response to treatment, the disease almost always comes back and becomes more difficult to treat. Bexxar, whose chemical name is tositumomab and iodine I 131 tositumomab, combines an antibody that seeks out cancer cells, and a radioactive form of the element iodine. When injected, it travels like a...

Family trees of ancient bacteria reveal evolutionary moves

...portant to marine environments today, so they must always have been," Blank said. "When Cyanobacteria started to appear, there was no ozone shield, so UV light would have killed most things. They either had to have come up with ways to deal with the UV light ?and there is evidence that they made UV-absorbin...

Artifical cornea lets woman blind 20 years see

... of the eye, according to Afshari. Infections are always a risk, which is why every patient must adhere to a strict daily regimen of antibiotic eye drops. With regular maintenance ?including visits to the ophthalmologist at least every three months (more frequently immediately after surgery) ?complications...

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