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Tag: "alter" at biology news

Man and mouse share genome structures

...g chromosome. Chemical tags placed on the histones alter the way chromatin is organized, thus allowing the right combination of genes to be turned on. In their study, the researchers analyzed the chromatin structure of the two shortest human chromosomes, numbers 21 and 22, containing about two percent of ...

Deficient DNA Repair Capacity Associated With Increased Risk Of Breast Cancer

...ime whether there are any interventions that could alter DNA repair capacity and what effect such interventions might have on risk." In an editorial, Marianne Berwick, Ph.D., M.P.H., of the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque, and Paolo Vineis, M.D., M.P.H., of Imperial College in London and the Unive...

Controversial drug shown to act on brain protein to cut alcohol use

...n Ibogaine's desirable actions and GDNF."If we can alter the GDNF pathway, we may well have a new treatmentagainst alcohol and drug addiction without the unwanted side effects ofIbogaine," Ron said.Colleagues in the research and coauthors on the paper are postdoctoralfellows Dao-Yao He, PhD, Nancy N.H. McG...

Neuronal 'traffic jam' marks early Alzheimer's disease

...rentiate into neurons in culture. Their goal is to alter those neurons genetically by introducing mutations know to cause Alzheimer's disease in people, to then test for transport defects, and then study whether those defects produce pathology similar to that seen in Alzheimer's. One of the questions they ...

Plants, animals share molecular growth mechanisms

... engineer plant cells to grow in different ways or alter how cells respond to external stimuli so they can defend themselves against insect or fungal attacks," Szymanski said. A protein complex known as Actin Related Protein 2/3 (ARP2/3) is a cellular machine that controls formation of actin filaments, wh...

Recent breakthroughs in common adult leukemia highlighted in New England Journal of Medicine

... us and many other scientists around the world may alter the natural history of this currently incurable leukemia," he added. A decade ago, CLL was considered a uniform disease of immature white blood cells that didn't die, with the slow rise in leukemia cell count seen in patients due to an accumulation ...

Clam embryo study shows pollutant mixture adversely affects nerve cell development

...l cocktailknown as BCE--can act synergistically to alter a key regulator in nervecell development. While scientists have previously studied the effectsof these pollutants individually, this is the first time anyone hasdemonstrated that BCE's components can work together to adverselyaffect neuron growth in ...

Study identifies predictors of HIV drug resistance in patients beginning triple therapy

...l cocktailknown as BCE--can act synergistically to alter a key regulator in nervecell development. While scientists have previously studied the effectsof these pollutants individually, this is the first time anyone hasdemonstrated that BCE's components can work together to adverselyaffect neuron growth in ...

Alcohol's effects on gene expression in the central nervous system

... in the intracellular signaling process (which can alter how the neuron functions), neuropeptide signaling (which modulates nerve cell activity), and myelin structure (which is needed for communication between nerve cells)," said McBride. "Gene expression profiling has also been used to identify chromosome...

Estrogen-like Component of Plastic Stimulates Growth of Certain Prostate Cancer Cells

... it may promote the growth of human tumor cellsand alter the growth and development of animals....

Study of genomic DNA leads to new advances in cancer diagnostics

...ite in the body to another. The researchers could alter the Alu I sensitivity of a cell's chromatin by exposing the cell to a single extracellular matrix molecule or by disrupting any of three cytoskeletal systems, which link the outside of the cell to the genome. Using this information, Dr. Maniotis's gr...

FDA Approves New Drug to Treat Type I and Type II Diabetes

...Symlin with insulin in the same syringe, which can alter the activity of the insulin, is addressed in the Medication Guide and in physician labeling. Finally, the potential for off-label use in patients where the benefit/risk profile has not been characterized or demonstrated is also a concern and will be ...

VCU Researchers Identify Networks Of Genes Responding To Alcohol In The Brain

...suggested that interfering with Bdnf signaling can alter alcohol consumption. If researchers can identify drugs that may inhibit or activate the function of one of the genes identified in these studies, they may be able to generate new treatments for alcoholism or addiction, Miles said. "The genes identi...

Researchers discover molecular mechanism that desensitizes us to cold

... PIP2. Cold or menthol stimulate this receptor and alter the electrical properties of the membrane, a process that leads to the sensation of cold. When the receptor is stimulated, calcium enters the cell and stimulates the breakdown of PIP2. When PIP2 is broken down, the receptor becomes inactive, thus end...

Researchers discover chemical compounds that affect plant growth

...vel compounds that affect the ability of plants to alter their direction of growth in response to gravity, a phenomenon known as gravitropism. The researchers screened a library of 10,000 small molecules, the practice is known as chemical genomics, to identify those that could positively or negatively aff...

Scientists discover how plants disarm the toxic effects of excessive sunlight

... nothing has previously been known about how cells alter gene expression to respond to singlet oxygen. We may now be able to design pharmaceuticals that target this response, and ultimately may help us mitigate disease." Donohue's co-authors on his study were a microbiology graduate student, Jennifer Anth...

Researchers rein in regulatory RNAs

...ted loci. Antisense transcripts have been shown to alter the methylation status of the overlapping partner gene. SATs might also trigger posttranscriptional gene regulation via RNA interference (RNAi) by virtue of their ability to form double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecules. A large proportion of these ant...

Revolutionary nanotechnology illuminates brain cells at work

...view changes in brain chemical levels. The sensors alter their 3-dimensional form upon binding with the chemical, which is then visible via a process known as fluorescence resonance energy transfer, or FRET. In a new study, the nanosensors were introduced into nerve cells to measure the release of the neur...

Cerebral navigation: How do nerve fibers know what direction to grow in?

...rs, ephexin1 is chemically modified, causing it to alter the cell's cytoskeleton, or internal scaffolding. This alteration makes the growth cone collapse, steering the axon in a new direction or halting its growth. In chicken motor neurons whose ephexin1 was inactivated, the axons grew into the hind limb p...

Compounds in plastic packaging act as environmental estrogens altering breast genes

...these hormonally active biological compounds could alter the genomic signatures of the mammary gland during critical stages of development." BPA (bisphenol A) is a synthetic resin used in food packaging, dental sealants and polycarbonate plastic products, which range from CDs and eyeglass lenses to tablewa...

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