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Tag: "addictive" at biology news

Structure-building cell signals also may influence learning and memory

...vious studies had shown that animals injected with addictive drugs had activated EphB receptors, and that there is a connection between synaptojanin-1 and bipolar disorders and schizophrenia. Until now, nobody had made the connection between EphB and the endocytosis involved in neurotransmitter regulation. "T...

Discovery of New Dopamine Action May Yield Alternative Psychiatric Drugs

... drug use on the brain, Caron added. Virtually all addictive drugs, including cocaine and amphetamines, directly or indirectly raise dopamine levels. The neurotransmitter therefore plays a major role in drug-induced highs and in addiction, he explained. Neurotransmitters such as dopamine are chemical messenge...

One hit of crystal meth causes birth defects

...tor co-ordination. Methamphetamine is a potent and addictive stimulant. "We've known for a while that meth abuse during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight, cleft palates and other malformations but this is the first research demonstrating that even a single exposure can cause long-term damage," say...

OHSU research shows vitamin C counteracts some negative impacts of smoking on unborn babies

...llion American women a year. Reflecting the highly addictive nature of smoking, these women continue to smoke despite the warnings of their physicians and despite a tremendous public awareness campaign aimed at preventing smoking during pregnancy. While this research finding may assist the babies of these moth...

Investigating 'brain shrinkage' in alcoholics

...d by immediate than delayed rewards. A hallmark of addictive substances is that they provide an immediate reward in the intoxicating experience. When actively drinking, an individual's inhibition processes become impaired and can further contribute to poor decisions and excessive drinking. With prolonged bouts...

Gene controlling circadian rhythms linked to drug addiction

...of the brain's reward system and may influence the addictive properties of drugs such as cocaine. "We tracked dopamine cells in the mice brains and found that these cells fired more rapidly and showed a pattern called bursting, which leads to an usually large dopamine release," Dr. McClung said. "We also foun...

Prescription pain patch abuse blamed for increase in deaths

...tance of physician and patient education regarding addictive disorders. "There is nothing wrong with the patch, the problem is with addictive disorders," Ray said. "Any drug has the potential for abuse. This study is useful for raising awaren...

Smoking damages key regulatory enzyme in the lung

...travenously, including therapeutic, anesthetic and addictive drugs. "The effects of smoking on human health ar...ine. Cigarette smoking, "the most damaging of all addictive substances," remains the leading cause of preventable death and has negative health impacts on peopl...

Clocking in Pillow Time without the Pillow

...mulants have limited usefulness. These potentially addictive chemicals can distort thinking just as they can enhance it. Because CX717 has a different biochemical action, it may be more beneficial than stimulants for counteracting the cognitive effects of sleep deprivation. But that doesn't mean we should thro...

Noise And Delays Explain Why Some Genes Oscillate In Activity

...mulants have limited usefulness. These potentially addictive chemicals can distort thinking just as they can enhance it. Because CX717 has a different biochemical action, it may be more beneficial than stimulants for counteracting the cognitive effects of sleep deprivation. But that doesn't mean we should thro...

Have a taste for fat? Yes! A sensor in the mouth promotes preference for fatty foods

...ay help us devise better strategies to address the addictive potential of dietary fat. ...

How the brain learns to become addicted

...cts on a brain region central to the adaptation to addictive drugs. Specifically, they found in their studies w...re and represent a "rewiring" of the brain into an addictive state. In a preview article on the paper in the same issue of Neuron, NIH neuroscientist Roy Wise c...

Researchers test new way to quit smoking

...it, according to Dr Bullen. "Nicotine is a highly addictive substance. It has been proposed that the stress a person undergoes when giving up cigarettes, coupled with the burden of remembering to use alternative methods of nicotine delivery, is too much too soon. "If a person first becomes used to the patch ...

Study reveals how ADHD drugs work in brain

...'s been a lot of concern over giving a potentially addictive drug to a child [with ADHD]," says lead author Cra...o play a role in memory formation and the onset of addictive behaviors, while norepinephrine has been linked with arousal and attentiveness. Berridge notes that...

Dissecting the machinery of nicotine's reward

...e is a key to developing treatment for this highly addictive drug. And that understanding involves tracing the neural machinery by which nicotine switches on the brain's reward machinery. In an article in the June 15, 2006, Neuron, Jean-Pierre Changeux of CNRS, Collège de France, and Institut Pasteur and Phil...

Hopkins scientists show hallucinogen in mushrooms creates universal 'mystical' experience

...ybin capsule. The drug has not been observed to be addictive or physically toxic in animal studies or human populations. "In this regard," says Griffiths, a psychopharmacologist, "it contrasts with MDMA (ecstasy), amphetamines or alcohol." The study isn't the first with psilocybin, the researchers say, thoug...

Meth promotes spread of virus in HIV-infected users

...Buffalo have presented the first evidence that the addictive drug methamphetamine, or meth, also commonly known as "speed" or "crystal," increases production of a docking protein that promotes the spread of the HIV-1 virus in infected users. The investigators found that meth increases expression of a rece...

High-tech research shows cocaine changes proteins and brain function

...eus accumbens, a part of the brain involved in the addictive effects of drugs, in 10 cocaine-overdose victims and 10 drug-free individuals. Analysis of thousands of proteins revealed differences between the two groups in the amounts of approximately 50 proteins, most of which correspond to changes in the ab...

Pleasure and pain: Study shows brain's 'pleasure chemical' is involved in response to pain too

...r variation between individuals who are exposed to addictive drugs ?some become addicted to the pleasures of the "high" the drugs cause, while others do not. "Variations in risk for drug abuse after initial exposures could be mediated by individual differences in the response of this neurotransmitter syste...

New research identifies gene important for nicotine's effects on the brain

...rs. "They are not just in nerve cells involved in addictive behavior; these signaling molecules are important throughout the brain and body", says Picciotto. "The more we understand how nicotine changes the function of nerve cells, the better we will be able to neutralize its effects on behavior". Picciott...

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