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Tag: "adaptations" at biology news

Genome of deadly amoeba shows surprising complexity, evidence of lateral gene transfer

...gh vaccine development. A number of the metabolic adaptations and stratagems identified from the E. histolytica genome also have commonalities with those reported in two other amitochondrial human pathogens of global importance: Trichomonas vaginalis and Giardia lamblia. "The enzymes that form the basis of the...

Researchers uncover sequence of major rice pathogen

...er, Dean and his co-authors shed some light on the adaptations required by a fungus to cause disease. The researc...lysis of the gene set provides an insight into the adaptations required by a fungus to cause disease. The genome encodes a large and diverse set of secreted protei...

Advancements In Genomics Foster Deep Sea Discoveries

...profundum, including a novel fermentative process, adaptations to electron, proton and nutrient transport across membranes and a large number of previously unknown genes. Scripps has been a pioneer in researching life in the deep ocean abyss for more than 50 years. Bartlett’s studies follow the pioneering work ...

The lopsided brain: Attention bias is shared by humans and birds

...t also that pseudoneglect may reflect evolutionary adaptations that allow animals to devote attention to multiple aspects of their environment. The findings are reported in the May 24 issue of Current Biology by Bettina Diekamp (now at Johns Hopkins University) and colleagues at Ruhr University, Bochum, Germany...

Ancient DNA helps clarify the origins of two extinct New World horse species

...uld provide a tool for exploring how environmental adaptations give rise to morphological variation. ### Citation: Weinstock J, Willerslev E, Sher A, Tong W, Ho SYW, et al. (2005) Evolution, systematics, and phylogeography of Pleistocene horses in the new world: A molecular perspective. PLoS Biol 3(8): e241. ...

Map of life on Earth could be used on Mars

...terpreted to trace the appearance of environmental adaptations across billions of years of evolution. Genes are inherited from parents, but can transfer from one organism to another without reproducing by a process called lateral gene transfer. Modular metabolic genes, which are not critical for cell production...

Gap-climbing fruit flies reveal components of goal-driven behaviors

...e, and iteratively improve, these three behavioral adaptations in order to traverse gaps much broader than their own body size. The decisive phase for the climbing success of a fly is the formation of a "bridge" with the hind and middle legs still holding on to the starting side and the front legs just about rea...

Lance Armstrong through a physiological lens: hard training boosts muscle power 8%

...ed as 30-second sprints, for stimulating metabolic adaptations within skeletal muscle," in this case totaling as ...ough peak oxygen uptake was not increased, aerobic adaptations did occur within active skeletal muscle as reflected by a 38% increase in activity of the mitochondr...

Getting an evolutionary handle on life after reproduction

...ifferent mortality threats should evolve different adaptations in their life histories, such as age at first reproduction, investment in reproduction, and patterns of senescence, including declines in reproduction. Since guppies are livebearers that provide no postnatal maternal care, Reznick et al. predicted th...

Genetic analysis of cavefish reveals more about evolution

...ically unavailable in the study of evolution. Cave adaptations have evolved in many species independently, however, and each cave species can be considered a replicate of the same evolutionary experiment that asks how species change in perpetual darkness. A frequent outcome is that the species lose pigmentation ...

Scientists show how thinking can harm brain cells

...e a strategy of chemical preconditioning to induce adaptations in nerve cells that would enable the cells to bett... amounts could trigger protective genes and induce adaptations that will make the dendrites more able to withstand insults," Bellizzi said. Diazoxide is not the o...

How the brain learns to become addicted

...opin releasing factor (CRF), acts similarly. Such adaptations are believed to create a need that is far more compelling than the simple memory of drug-induced pleasure and represent a "rewiring" of the brain into an addictive state. In a preview article on the paper in the same issue of Neuron, NIH neuroscient...

Alternatives to the use of nitrate as a fertiliser

...es have been observed which could be indicative of adaptations in order to assimilate the ammonium without modifying its internal processes. In another part of the study the nature of the stress produced in plants by the use of ammoniacal fertilisers is investigated. The high concentration of ammonium does not ...

Thin tough skin, slow-growing gills protect larval Antarctic fish

...f antifreeze proteins (AFPs) in their blood. Such adaptations are important, researchers at the University of Illinois atUrbana-Champaign say, because the larval fish of at least two species of notothenioids that inhabit the Ross Sea at McMurdo Sound and Terra Nova Bay surprisingly lack sufficient antifreeze to...

'Scent of a woman' tells male redback spiders to find a mate

...oronto at Scarborough has identified developmental adaptations in male Australian redback spiders (Latrodectus hasselti) that give these guys an edge in their deadly dating game. The study in the April 4 issue of Current Biology reports that males develop faster based on the population density of males and femal...

Ready, set, mutate?and may the best microbe win

... the first glimpse of how individual genetic-level adaptations play out as Darwinian natural selection in large populations. The results appear in the May 19 issue of Molecular Cell. "One of our most surprising findings is that an estimated 20 million point mutations gave rise to just six populations that were ...

Chimpanzee study reveals genome variation hotspots

...r, but it can also shed light on the diversity and adaptations of our nearest relatives," says Stone, who is one of the study's senior co-authors, along with Charles Lee, an assistant professor in the Department of Pathology at Brigham and Women's Hospital, a teaching affiliate of Harvard Medical School. ...

Stimulation of the semicircular canals can artificially control human walking and balance

...gdom and has arisen through specific complementary adaptations of the body and brain. It has been believed that the key to human balance has come from a precise sense of--and ability to align the body to--the direction of gravity. However, the semicircular canals that the researchers stimulated to control walk...

Species unique to tidal marshes face threats

...em to be largely restricted to North America, have adaptations that suit them to life in a harsh environment in which seed abundance is low, salinity is high, and flooding is frequent. Yet they face a broad variety of threats from human-caused environmental damage, according to an assessment in the August 2006 i...

Looking to a new era in bee research

...lyses of disease resistant pathways and metabolic adaptations to an all floral diet. Several papers address ways that honey bee studies can provide insights into human health. These papers cover the genetic bases of honey bee venom allergens, along with mechanistic insights into the remarkable longevity of quee...

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