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UAB scientists discover the origin of a mysterious physical force

...operty is responsible for the hydration force that acts when water is surrounded by certain types of electrostatically charged molecules, such as DNA and some biological compounds, and when thin films form in detergents. The discovery has been published in today's edition of Physical Review Letters. Wate...

Dysentery uses 'sword and shield' to cause infection

...olysaccharide (LPS) on the surface of the bacteria acts as a shield to protect the dysentery bacterium fro...esponses through the expression of a molecule that acts as a shield on its surface." The researchers found that shigella, the bacteria causing dysentery us...

Drug That 'Tags' Decision-making Areas Of The Brain May Aid

...in nicotine addiction andother disorders. Nicotine acts by opening specific membrane proteins,called nicotinic receptors, and changing the electrical properties ofthe cell. The human brain coordinates billions of neurons to mediatecomplex behaviors such as an infant learning to recognize his or herparents...

“Nano-scissors?laser shows precise surgical capability

...at Austin, led the development of thetechnique. It acts like a pair of tiny “nano-scissors,?able to cut,for example, nano-sized units like nerve axons, the parts of nervecells that carry nerve impulses away from the cells to muscles or toother cells.“This tool opens up a new frontier for biologists studyi...

Yale Scientists Find MicroRNA Regulates Ras Cancer Gene

...oes not revert a mutated Ras to normal; instead it acts like a brake on an accelerated Ras." Lung cancer currently has a poor prognosis with less than 15 percent of patients surviving five years. The lungs, however, are relatively accessible for inhalation of potential gene therapy agents. "While this is...

Enzyme shown to help protect genomic stability

...ry and lead author on the study. The Ubp10 enzyme acts on histones, molecules that have attracted increasing attention from scientists as they move beyond sequencing the human genome to trying to better understand how DNA is managed and its activity regulated. Histones are small proteins around which DNA...

BRCA1 causes ovarian cancer through indirect, biochemical route

...notes, "What we've shown is that the gene actually acts indirectly, that it disrupts interactions between different cell types." The well-known breast cancer gene, BRCA1, not only gives carriers of its mutated form a four in five chance of developing breast cancer, it also confers a 40 percent risk of de...

Study shows nanoshells ideal as chemical nanosensors

...re of molecules, we found each individualnanoshell acts as an independent Raman enhancer," said lead researcherNaomi Halas, the Stanley C. Moore Professor of Electrical and ComputerEngineering, Professor of Chemistry and Director of Rice's Laboratoryof Nanophotonics. "That creates an opportunity to design...

Scientists document complex genomic events leading to the birth of new genes

...han those of their progenitors. Natural selection acts on gene duplications, most often by deleting them from the gene pool or by degrading them into non-functional pseudogenes. This is because fully functional duplicated genes, in combination with the corresponding parent gene, produce abnormally abunda...

UCLA scientists transform HIV into cancer-seeking missile

...thout provoking disease. "The disarmed AIDS virus acts like a Trojan horse ?transporting therapeutic agents to a targeted part of the body, such as the lungs, where tumors often spread," said Chen, a professor of medicine, microbiology, immunology and molecular genetics and a member of the Jonsson Compre...

Breakthrough method in nanoparticle synthesis paves the way for new pharmaceutical and biomedical applications

...e surface tension between liquids). One surfactant acts as the template for mesoporous structure, while the other is used to limit the growth of the particles to nanometer dimensions. This method can be used to create a variety of nanoparticles with enormous surface areas, and very well-defined pore size...

Carnegie Mellon scientists develop tool that uses MRI to visualize gene expression in living animals

...ores iron in a non-toxic form. This metalloprotein acts like a nano-magnet and a potent MRI "reporter." A typical MRI scan detects and analyzes signals given off by hydrogen protons in water molecules after they are exposed to a magnetic field and radiofrequency pulses. These signals are then converted i...

Wisconsin researchers identify sleep gene

... "We believe this gene is very powerful because it acts on the final common pathway and has the ability to change the excitability of neurons." ...

Chemists identify immune system mechanism for methamphetamine binges

...t to small drug molecules," Janda says. "Glycation acts like a linker that allows [the methamphetamine] to be displayed to the immune system, triggering a vaccine-like reaction." Just as a vaccine is able to remove invading pathogens by using antibodies to the pathogen, antibodies to methamphetamine atta...

Discovery Promises Simpler Therapy for Sickle Cell Disease

...ddition to its role in oxygen delivery, hemoglobin acts a biosensor, adjusting blood flow according to the oxygen demand of tissues and organs, by distributing nitric oxide. Reports by the team in 2001 and 2002 further detailed nitric oxide's role in the red blood cell membrane, confirming it as the thir...

New component of the 'brakes' on nerve regeneration found

...overed that a protein variously called TAJ or TROY acts as an important part of the receptor on neurons th...yelin is the fatty sheath that encases neurons and acts as an insulator and aid to the transmission of nerve impulses. Researchers knew that CNS neurons ha...

New insight into regulation of blood stem cells

...that c-Myb is a key regulator of hematopoiesis and acts at many distinct points to control HSCs. "It is remarkable that a single transcription factor controls the diverse processes of self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation" says Dr. Cooke. "The next challenge is to understand how c-Myb controls ...

Alzheimer's cognitive decline slowed

...irst therapy for a human neurological disease that acts by preventing cell death." In this first-ever gene therapy for Alzheimer's disease, UCSD physician-scientists took skin cells from eight patients diagnosed with early Alzheimer's disease. The tissue was modified in the lab to express nerve growth fa...

Researchers report new pro-inflammatory role for anti-inflammatory enzyme

...contributes to inflammation and host defense. "NO acts as a cytotoxic/cytostatic effector molecule released (predominantly) by immune cells," explains Dr. Adrian J. Hobbs of University College London. "It kills pathogens via a variety of mechanisms, mostly related to inhibition of metabolic enzymes and d...

Discovery may lead to better Candidiasis drug

...gulate its volume. The binding action of histatin acts like a "foot in the door," said Edgerton, UB resea...cted in the same way. And we wanted to know why it acts on yeast (fungus is a type of yeast) and not on other types of cells." Through a series of studies,...

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