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Tag: "activating" at biology news

Man and mouse share genome structures

...te that these unique chromatin structures could be activating sets of HOX genes for specific developmental programs. This global activation may have implications for understanding mechanisms behind certain cancers, Bernstein believes. For example, proteins that place methyl groups on histones can, when mutated...

Researchers discover way to make cells in the eye sensitive to light

... the University of Manchester, havediscovered that activating the melanopsin gene in the nerve cellscauses them ...ain, remain intact. The researchers believethat by activating the melanopsin, these cells may gain the ability tosense and respond to light.Professor Mark Hankins...

Source of molecular triggers in cutaneous T cell lymphoma identified

...rder to replicate. To determine the nature of the activating antigen, Carole Berger, a research scientist in dermatology set up a physiologic laboratory system mimicking the tight relationship in vivo between CTCL cells and LC. The research team considered three broad categories of antigen as the source of the...

Clam embryo study shows pollutant mixture adversely affects nerve cell development

...affect neuraldevelopment and neural connections by activating or inactivating otherproteins.Demonstrating that clam embryos are affected by BCE paves the way foradditional studies that may help explain how exposure to BCE affectshuman nerve cell development and how it might relate to neurologicaldisorders. "We ...

Study identifies predictors of HIV drug resistance in patients beginning triple therapy

...affect neuraldevelopment and neural connections by activating or inactivating otherproteins.Demonstrating that clam embryos are affected by BCE paves the way foradditional studies that may help explain how exposure to BCE affectshuman nerve cell development and how it might relate to neurologicaldisorders. "We ...

In the sea slug's defense against lobsters, confusion is key

...ability to trick the lobster's nervous system into activating feeding-associated behaviors succeeds, in combination with ink and opaline's other effects, in distracting the lobster sufficiently to enable the slug's successful evasion. Because the set of behaviors stimulated by the slug's secretions resemble ac...

Alcohol's effects on gene expression in the central nervous system

...esting that the reinforcing effects of alcohol are activating VTA dopamine neurons and producing changes in synaptic connections that resemble those that occur in memory and learning. "Learning and memory require enhanced synaptic function between neurons," explained McBride. "Enhanced synaptic function is cha...

Newly Discovered Compound Blocks Known Cancer-Causing Protein

...anti-cancer drugs that block the Icmt protein from activating uncontrolled cell growth, a hallmark of cancer, according to Patrick Casey, Ph.D. Casey is the study's senior investigator and Duke pharmacologist and cancer biologist. Moreover, said Casey, their discovery is the first to emerge from the Duke Small...

Plants defy Mendel's inheritance laws, may prompt textbook changes

...enes and the proteins they produce are involved in activating this process. "We need to understand more about the molecular mechanics of how this process works," Pruitt said. "Then we will know exactly what role this gene plays." Pruitt's team already knows that animals don't have hothead genes, either normal...

Key Trigger Of Opioid Withdrawal Symptoms Found

...A was part of the triggering machinery involved in activating the abnormal GABA transporter activity. Importantly, the researchers found that drugs that inhibit either the GABA transporter activity or protein kinase A eliminate the hyperexcitability of the PAG neurons in the mouse brain slices. The researcher...

How an AIDS-Related Cancer Unleashes Inflammation

...ymatic function itself, but acted by binding to or activating other proteins," he said. Thus, the researchers conducted experiments in which they isolated proteins that bound with kaposin B in the cell. That screening revealed that kaposin B binds to a protein called MK2, which is known to play a role in boost...

Effective Cancer Treatments Follow The Clock

... surprise, because some of the enzymes involved in activating CY in the liver show circadian rhythms,?said Takahashi. “We thought that the liver might be activating the drug more strongly at some times, or detoxifying it less effectively, or both.?/p> However, ...

Computational Method Speeds Mapping of Cell Signaling Networks

...er, it relays a danger signal throughout the cell, activating it for a quick response. These signals prompt activated T-cells to multiply rapidly and send out molecular "distress signals" that attract other immune system molecules to battle the infection. Components in the pathway are chemically altered during ...

Novel gene-silencing nanoparticles shown to inhibit Ewing's sarcoma

...nt in what's technically called a "translocation," activating the oncogene EWS-FLI1 which triggers the tumor growth characteristic for this cancer. In their experiment, siRNA was delivered to this growth-promoting region of the tumor cell, effectively reducing cell replication by 80 percent. The scientists th...

Protein helps regulate the genes of embryonic stem cells

...ctly have an impact on gene expression - either by activating or silencing a gene. "Diversity is determined by different types of chemical modifications and also by the number of modifications," Montgomery said. "And those modifications are the unit of epigenetic information, just as the DNA sequence is the un...

Scientists discover that three overlapping signals in embryo help get the backbone right

...s just as specific a signal in the embryo as is an activating signal." Since they discovered noggin, Harland and his colleagues have shown that in later stages of development, this protein factor is critical in laying down cartilage to make joints, and even plays an important role after birth. Recently, he and...

Gladstone investigators discover how resting T cells avoid HIV infection

...s to communicate between cells) and recruiting and activating additional T cells. The new study shows that this activation process dismantles the highly effective A3G antiviral shield, making these cells highly susceptible to HIV infection. Greene's group is now looking at ways to use this new knowledge therap...

Fat's fate depends on its source

...late glucose, lipid, and cholesterol metabolism by activating distinct pools of PPARa in the liver. Further study is required to elucidate the mechanism by which nutrient sensors in the body distinguish between different sources of fat, the researchers said. ### The researchers include Manu V. Chakravarthy, Z...

Researchers discover mechanism for multiplying adult stem cells

... Researchers in his lab are also exploring whether activating Oct4 in somatic cells, such as skin cells, would make it easier for these cells to be reprogrammed when used as donors for nuclear transplantation. If so, it may help scientists more efficiently "customize" embryonic stem cells that could be used to ...

Virginia Tech group adds tools to DNA-targeted anti-cancer drugs

...ved two challenges facing photodynamic therapy, or activating drug delivery devices with light. The Brewer group...l replication. "Using platinum assures that we are activating complexes that are already attached to the target," Brewer said. "The previous systems had an associ...

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