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Tag: "activates" at biology news

A gene's first 'kiss' sets off that affair known as puberty

...the hormones involved, just how and when the brain activates this process has been a great mystery. An apprecia...ent studies had been identified as a molecule that activates a signal receptor of GPR54, the researchers looked to the nonhuman primate, the only animal with a r...

Novel Enzyme Shows Potential As An Anti-HIV Target

...s, and Tat. Unlike most transcription factors, Tat activates transcription by binding to RNA, specifically to a bulging “stem-loop?structure that forms at one end of all viral transcripts called the trans-acting responsive element (TAR). Tat binding to TAR requires recruiting the enzyme cyclin-dependent kinase...

Scientists seek answers on what activates deadly anthrax spores

...ee other institutions are setting out to find what activates the spores in anthrax, the deadly bacterial infection that is back in the news. "A key aspect of anthrax spore biology concerns the germination process through which the dormant spore becomes a reproductive, disease-causing bacterium," explained Al ...

Sea skate experiment sheds light on human cell transport

...process known as phosphorylation takes place. This activates the gates, which open to release excess water along with salts and other organic material. The researchers made their discovery by using a plant-based substance to block an enzyme that causes phosphorylation. The result: The gates wouldn't open. The...

How an AIDS-Related Cancer Unleashes Inflammation

...s binding to MK2 creates inflammation that in turn activates the regulatory protein p38. p38, in turn, further ... still don't know the mechanism by which kaposin B activates MK2," said Ganem. "Nor do we understand how this activation leads to activation of the upstream regu...

Hirsute Or Hairless? Two Proteins May Spell The Difference

...Snail, which in turn down-regulates E-cadherin and activates a proliferation pathway in the developing bud. Reduced E-cadherin, the authors conclude, appears to contribute to Snail-mediated enhanced proliferation by allowing proteins normally sequestered at the membrane to operate in a proliferation pathway af...

Gene Signatures Predict Interferon Response For Multiple Sclerosis Patients

... profile of targeted cells—that is, it inhibits or activates certain genes—which in turn alters the cells' activity. Blood samples were taken from 52 patients with relapsing-remitting MS (marked by acute flare-ups followed by partial or full recovery), and their RNA was isolated from a class of immune cells c...

Multi-purpose protein regulates new protein synthesis and immune cell development

... with unfolded proteins. To prevent this, the cell activates the unfolded protein response (UPR). "The UPR has...g and help with protein trafficking. And third, it activates genes involved in protein degradation to get rid of excess unfolded proteins. So you reduce the load...

Researchers report new pro-inflammatory role for anti-inflammatory enzyme

...al mice. The scientists also showed that endotoxin activates eNOS in macrophages and that this effect is an essential trigger for the induction of iNOS. "eNOS has until recently been thought to act principally in an anti-inflammatory manner," notes Dr. Hobbs. "The results of our study show clearly that eNOS c...

Cerebral navigation: How do nerve fibers know what direction to grow in?

...when ephrin binds to Eph receptors on the axon, it activates a protein called Vav2 in the cell's growth cone. Activation of Vav2 induces the cell to engulf the ephrin-Eph complex, breaking the bond between the two and repelling the axon, causing it to turn away. When mice were genetically modified to lack Vav2...

Advancements In Genomics Foster Deep Sea Discoveries

...and that triggers a signal transduction event that activates the expression of genes that help the cells to adapt to the increased pressure,?said Bartlett. The scientists found other tantalizing discoveries in Photobacterium profundum, including a novel fermentative process, adaptations to electron, proton and...

Researchers make surprise discovery that some neurons can transmit three signals at once

...cience. But when we also found that this glutamate activates NMDA receptors at the most critical stage of brain development and organization, we realized that this could explain a number of fundamental questions," explained Karl Kandler, Ph.D., associate professor of neurobiology at the University of Pittsburg...

Master gene controls healing of skin in fruit flies and mammals

...ce identifies a master gene called grainyhead that activates wound repair genes in the cells surrounding an injury in the cuticle of a fly embryo. These wound repair genes then regenerate the injured patch of cuticle. In a separate study published in the same issue of Science, a team of researchers led by Ste...

Unchecked DNA replication drives earliest steps toward cancer

...es the DNA breaks caused by replication stress and activates the p53 pathway. That pathway shuts down the replication process, thus limiting further DNA damage. In some circumstances, p53 may even force the cell into apoptosis, or programmed death, as a way to protect against the cell developing into a tumor. ...

Molecular thermometers on skin cells detect heat and camphor

...at this is indeed the case by showing that camphor activates TRPV3 on keratinocytes but not on sensory neurons. In the knockout models, this heat- and camphor-mediated activity disappears, which suggests that it is the TRPV3 proteins on the keratinocytes that are actually detecting warm temperatures. It is not...

Molecular messengers perform a crucial role in the ability of injured nerve cells to heal themselves

...d centers in the cell, transmitting a message that activates certain genes in the cell body, which then manufactures proteins that are vital for the healing of the injured axon. The problem is that the messengers must transmit their phosphorus message over a great distance along the axon, and in the course of ...

Remote control flies? Fly behavior controlled by laser light

...ss through a cell membrane. The small molecule ATP activates the ion channel chosen by the researchers, so ATP became the key. To keep the ATP from binding to the ion channel and jump-starting the nerve cell's activity before the proper moment, Lima and Miesenböck caged the ATP with other chemical compounds th...

Disabling gene defuses rheumatoid arthritis in mice

...es in neutrophils, including the pathways the gene activates to block apoptosis. They will also be looking for drugs that inhibit Foxo3a and testing them in the mice as potential anti-arthritis drugs. ### Jonsson H, Allen P, Peng SL. "Inflammatory arthritis requires Foxo3a to prevent Fas ligand-induced neutr...

Second messenger NAADP shows fast, dose-related impact on satiety cycle

...h the market. Cholecystokinin, a first messenger, activates NAADP; so which is 'therapeutic?' Several earlier...masaki noted. "We have shown that cholecystokinin activates NAADP production through a specific protein on the cell surface, the cholecystokinin-A receptor. The...

Immune system's distress signal tells bacteria when to strike back

... binds with OprF on the bacterial cell surface, it activates a gene called rhII. RhII triggers synthesis and secretion of a bacterial signaling molecule called C4-HSL. By measuring the amount of C4-SHL in their environment these bacteria can estimate their own numbers and density. If they feel they are suffic...

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