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Tag: "activate" at biology news

Scientists ID molecular 'switch' in liver that triggers harmful effects of saturated and trans fats

...g proteins. These important parts of the mechanism activate many key genes of lipid biosynthesis involving the pathways of cholesterol and triglycerides; these genes directed the liver to manufacture more cholesterol, which it does in the form of very low-density lipoproteins. The investigators noted that in ...

Bound for destruction: Ubiquitination protects against improper Notch signaling

...Dx), a putative ubiquitin ligase known to bind and activate theNotch receptor. Hayashi’s group found evidence that Nedd4 and Dx viewith each other to regulate Notch activity during endocytosis, and thatNedd4 actually destabilizes Dx in the presence of Notch. Thiscompetition between two ubiquitin ligases to pe...

U of M researcher examines newly emerging deadly disease

...lungs, making superantigens (bacterial toxins that activate large numbers of T cells), often leading to death due to hypertension and shock. Purpura fulminans has been identified in five cases in the Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minn., metropolitan area during 2000-2004, as described in the April 1, 2005 issue of Cl...

Molecular machine may lead to new drugs to combat human diseases

... as genetic junk, introns are bits of DNA that can activate their own removal from RNA, which translates DNA's directions for gene behavior. Introns then splice the RNA back together. Scientists are just learning whether many DNA sequences previously believed to have no function actually may play specialized ...

An HIV Protein Plays a Surprising Role in Gene Activation

...ed for PIC assembly, which was in turn required to activate transcription. The big surprise came in the next round of experiments, which explored Tat's influence on transcription and PIC assembly on the HIV promoter. As expected, transcription factors were “virtually undetectable?at the core promoter in the ...

In the sea slug's defense against lobsters, confusion is key

... lobsters and that indeed these chemicals serve to activate nervous-system pathways that control feeding behaviors of the lobster. The inky secretion also stimulates other behaviors in the lobster, including grooming and avoidance. Ironically, the slug's ability to trick the lobster's nervous system into acti...

Researchers identify target for cancer drugs

... its way to the cell membrane where other proteins activate it, thereby enabling Akt to contribute to tumor gr...mTOR and rictor bind and form a complex, they help activate Akt by adding a phosphate group to a sequence of its amino acids (a process called "phosphorylation"...

Gene Vaccine Protects Mice Against Development Of Her2/neu Breast Cancer

...nting “antigen,?or pieces of a foreign invader, to activate an immune response. “Sonow, the same immune system cells that rev up the immune system aredisplaying HER2/neu proteins as antigens,?Lachman says.What results is a strong response against HER2/neu that incorporatesall three arms of the immune system ¯...

A comprehensive response to HIV could prevent 10 million AIDS deaths in Africa by 2020

...nting “antigen,?or pieces of a foreign invader, to activate an immune response. “Sonow, the same immune system cells that rev up the immune system aredisplaying HER2/neu proteins as antigens,?Lachman says.What results is a strong response against HER2/neu that incorporatesall three arms of the immune system ¯...

Studies reveal methods viruses use to sidestep immune system

...ch sends a cascade of signals to other proteins to activate a transcription factor called interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3). This protein turns on the genes responsible for producing interferon, which neutralizes viruses by suppressing their replication. The researchers also investigated why cells with ...

Research Gives Hope For Liver Damage

...macrophageswork, we aim to find out how to create, activate and de-activate thesecells to make them repair, rather than damage, liver tissue."He added: "Cirrhosis, commonly, but not always, caused by alcoholconsumption, can lead to liver failure. At a time when outcomes forother diseases, such as cancers and ...

Newly Discovered Compound Blocks Known Cancer-Causing Protein

...led cell growth. Mutations in Ras that permanently activate it have been found in half of all colon cancer and 90 percent of pancreatic cancers, among other cancers. Casey and his colleagues in Duke's Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology have already discovered and developed another class of cancer ...

VCU Researchers Identify Networks Of Genes Responding To Alcohol In The Brain

...researchers can identify drugs that may inhibit or activate the function of one of the genes identified in these studies, they may be able to generate new treatments for alcoholism or addiction, Miles said. "The genes identified in our studies may eventually lead to other studies that can evaluate an individ...

New Insights Into HIV Immunity Suggest Alternative Approach to Vaccines

...use these seemingly vulnerable outer coat proteins activate self-reactive antibodies. "The fundamental proble...such as systemic lupus erythematosus. When viruses activate innate B cells, the body destroys the B cells to protect against autoantibodies that could cause aut...

Gene Signatures Predict Interferon Response For Multiple Sclerosis Patients

...independently of clinical response (interferon can activate genes that have no effect on disease), as well as genes that were associated with a good or poor response. Some of these genes were also the best predictors of patient response before therapy was started. This approach can predict the probability of...

Multi-purpose protein regulates new protein synthesis and immune cell development

...ding and put stress on the cell. By doing so, they activate the UPR." Several years ago, Kaufman and his research colleagues discovered that IRE1 triggers the unfolded protein response by splicing a segment of messenger RNA called XBP1. This leads to production of a new protein, which turns on genes in the U...

Brain-mapping technique aids understanding of sleep, wakefulness

...also found that during wakefulness, orexin neurons activate cells in other parts of the brain that negatively feed back to the sleep-active neurons in the anterior hypothalamus, keeping them from becoming active. "This makes perfect sense," said Dr. Yanagisawa, a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator ...

New understanding of DNA repair may pave way to cancer treatments

...ake place in cancer and pathologic situations, can activate both functions of ATF2, which is expected to disturb the otherwise conserved balance between its role in gene regulation and the DNA damage response. We need to find out which of the two functions is more dominant under these circumstances in order t...

Live vaccines more effective against horse herpes virus

... an inactivated vaccine, employs a killed virus to activate the horse's immune response. Osterrieder vaccinated five horses with an MLV and five with an inactivated virus; five received no vaccination. None of the 15 horses was pregnant. The horses were then exposed to the herpes virus. The study found that...

Cooperation is key—a new way of looking at MicroRNA and how it controls gene expression

...ough various post-translational modifications that activate or deactivate them. Translation is the final step in the expression of every gene, and the cell exercises control over this process in numerous ways, and hence expression of a gene. One way to exert this control is ensuring that mRNAs that are not n...

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