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Tag: "acids" at biology news

In mice, drug protects against diabetes and atherosclerosis

...at blocks the protein's ability to bind with fatty acids -- the function that leads to inflammatory and metabolic havoc when a high-fat or high-cholesterol diet is consumed. The drug appears to have no effect on lean animals eating a normal diet, the scientists said, suggesting that blocking aP2 may not be...

Breakthrough developments in rheumatoid arthritis reported

...s in contact with arginine, one of 20 common amino acids in proteins. When one of the enzymes is present, nitrogen is removed from the chemical structure of arginine and it converts into citrulline. Laboratories have developed a test to measure for anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody, or anti-...

Microbes at work cleaning up the environment

...eroids. They also studied whether various amino acids induce rapid aggregation in metal-sulfide nanopart... Cysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. The researchers found that inorganic aggregation of zinc-sul...

Mutating the entire genome

...rous “base pairs” of four building blocks: nucleic acids designated A, C, G and T. DNA in each human cell has about 3 billion base pairs, arranged into 23 pairs of chromosomes. Those chromosomes include roughly 20,000 genes, which carry the code needed for cells to produce the proteins used to make bod...

Weizmann Institute scientists develop a general 'control switch' for protein activity

...ng, the scientists insert a short segment of amino acids into the amino acid sequence making up the protein. This segment is capable of binding strongly and selectively to a particular chemical drug, which affects the activity level of the engineered protein by increasing or reducing it. When the drug is n...

Technique monitors thousands of molecules simultaneously

...her electrode. This was done for the generation of acids and bases and applied to the synthesis of DNA and peptide polymers. But could this approach be used to make the more difficult to synthesize shaped molecules needed for mapping a receptor? This would require a diverse array of reactions to be compati...

The sound of proteins

...rate rhythm, and how to cram the 20 standard amino acids (the building blocks of proteins) into just 13 not...an those which appear less often. Individual amino acids are expressed as chords, in which similar amino acids are paired. For example, the amino acids tyros...

Gene mutation linked to cognition is found only in humans

...type II neuropsin in humans, as the extra 45 amino acids in this form may cause protein structural and functional changes. They note that in order to understand the genetic basis that underlies the traits that set humans apart from nonhuman primates, recent studies have focused on identifying genes that ha...

UCLA AIDS Institute researchers find a peptide that encourages HIV infection

...ence as retrocyclin-1. In both peptides, the amino acids are strung like 18 beads along the molecule's backbone. The amino acids in RC-111, however, are in reverse order. The researchers had initially wanted to quantify previ...

New success in engineering plant oils

...han do temperate oils, but without the trans fatty acids commonly found in margarine products. Furthermore,...e that the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids plays a key role in plants' ability to adapt to different climates, but to change this ratio specifi...

Blood sugar's manufacture limited by building blocks' supply

...o a defect in the processing of amino acids. Amino acids are the main ingredients of proteins and the source of a key substrate in blood sugar's production. "Gluconeogenesis is a complicated process," said Mukesh K. Jain of Case Western Reserve University. "It fundamentally requires two big things: the ...

Changes in amino acids in the 1918 influenza virus cut transmission

...he cell surface. There are two primary ways sialic acids are associated with molecules in the cell surface—... infection, due to the presence of alpha2-6 sialic acids in the respiratory tract of ferrets, similar to the human scenario. Groups of ferrets were infected ...

Power-boosting signal in muscle declines with age

... skeletal muscle stimulates the oxidation of fatty acids and the production, or biogenesis, of power-producing mitochondria that burn fat and fuel cells, according to the researchers. The new findings might help to explain "what happens as we age," said Gerald I. Shulman, a Howard Hughes Medical Institu...

Protein fragments sequenced in 68 million-year-old Tyrannosaurus rex

...t down into fragments, or peptides, 10 to 20 amino acids long. The peptides were passed over a liquid chromatography (LC) column, where they were separated from one another and then sprayed at extremely low, or nanoliter, flow rates, for optimal sensitivity, into a mass spectrometer. Typically, a mass s...

Biologists develop large gene dataset for rice plant

...leic acids, or mRNAs) as well as small ribonucleic acids (small RNAs) in rice. The analysis of rice was based on gene sequences representing nearly 47 million mRNA molecules and three million small RNAs, a larger dataset than has been reported for any other plant species. Small RNAs are considered on...

New findings blow a decade of assumptions out of the water

...rate, NO3. Only then can it be used to build amino acids and proteins essential to all life. Eventually the fixed nitrogen is returned to its gaseous state, a process called denitrification. Scientists have known for several decades that denitrification occurs in the deep, low-oxygen waters of the Pacif...

Stability of mRNA/DNA and DNA/DNA duplexes modulates mRNA transcription

...information in living systems. However, do nucleic acids possess other attributes that contribute to their ...cognized by DNA binding proteins. However, nucleic acids are real molecules with defined physical characteristics, which can influence their biological funct...

Researchers from the UGR use a bacterium to obtain biopreservatives from food

... Marina Sánchez, "has determined which AS-48 amino acids are essential for membranestability and biological... out, "and we have studied the role of seven amino acids that could be involved in biological activity and in the hydrophobic nature and thermodynamic stabil...

Protein sensor for fatty acid buildup in mitochondria

...have an enzyme that responds to a buildup of fatty acids by triggering the production of a key molecule in ...energy while reducing the chance that excess fatty acids will accumulate. The St. Jude discovery explains how the fatty acid-sensing enzyme PanK2 tailors p...

RNA enzyme structure offers a glimpse into the origins of life

...the origins of life. "Which came first, nucleic acids or proteins? This question once seemed an intractable paradox, but with the discovery of ribozymes, it is now possible to imagine a prebiotic 'RNA World' in which self-replicating ribozymes accomplished both tasks," said William Scott, associate prof...

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