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Tag: "acetylcholine" at biology news

Nicotine rush hinges on sugar in neurons

...first detailed look at part of the mouse nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), one in a large and important group of molecules, known as ion channel proteins, that allow signals to pass between neurons. The results reveal an important role for the sugar molecules in such proteins. “Our studies fill a major...

Mechanism of nicotine's learning effects explored

...Mansvelder and colleagues found that by activating acetylcholine receptors, nicotine affects a process called “spike-timing-dependent potentiation?that governs changes in strength of signaling connections among neurons. What’s more, the researchers traced this effect to nicotine’s action on specific kinds of neuro...

A new target for painkillers

...ule in cells known as the "alpha9alpha10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor." "The numerous analgesic compounds cu...t like keys into lock-like alpha9alpha10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, which are found on nerve cells and are in the family of receptors activated by nicotine f...

Researchers discover mechanism that determines when detailed memories are retained

..., and colleagues determined that a higher level of acetylcholine during a learning task correlated with more detail...mbered. The results are the first to tie levels of acetylcholine to memory specificity and could have implications in the study and treatment of memory-related disor...

Increased sensitivity to nerve signals keeps diabetes at bay

...sulin, or beta cells, lack so-called M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors develop some symptoms of diabetes, inclu...arasympathetic nerve endings release the messenger acetylcholine before and most likely after food is absorbed. "However, the importance of parasympathetic innervat...

Dissecting the machinery of nicotine's reward

... stimulates particular receptors--called nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs)--on the surface of neurons that...sive to their natural triggering neurotransmitter, acetylcholine (ACh). Receptors such as nAChRs are complex proteins that nestle in the surface of cells and trigge...

Nicotine exposure during development leads to hearing problems

...ttention to something, such as an important sound, acetylcholine is released into the brain. It then interacts with...r is damaged due to prenatal exposure to nicotine, acetylcholine cannot bind with it and increased sensitivity to the important sound is lost. "While verbal functi...

Experimental drug reverses key cognitive deficits, pathology in Alzheimer's

...plaques and tangles in AD patients. Dysfunction in acetylcholine receptors has been shown to be characteristic of early stages of AD. Receptors are proteins on the neuronal surface that are triggered by the chemical signals called neurotransmitters. This triggering initiates such cellular responses as the wave of...

Botox could help target resistant tumors for treatment

...ing the release of neurotransmitters, particularly acetylcholine and norepinephrine. Gallez and his colleagues hypothesized that since Botulinum toxin impeded neurotransmitter release in the sympathetic nervous system, it could prevent neuromuscular contractions of vessels in tumors. The inhibition of this contrac...

Alcoholism, smoking and genetics among Plains American Indians

...ffects on the brain occur mainly through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and alcohol acts on these same receptors to release dopamine, the 'pleasure' hormone in the brain's reward pathway." Enoch added that the enzyme COMT plays an important role in the breakdown of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain, it...

New technique helps researchers determine amino-acid charge

... case, researchers focused on the muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, a membrane protein that mediates voluntary muscle contraction. "Our paper has implications that are specific to this receptor, but many of the findings can be extended to several other membrane proteins," said Claudio Grosman, a professor ...

Researchers show how air pollution can cause heart disease

...ers tested how the neurotransmitters serotonin and acetylcholine affected the aortic arches of PM2.5-exposed mice differently than those of controls. The arteries taken from exposed mice were less elastic than the control group, constricting more in the presence of serotonin and relaxing less in response to acetyl...

The synapse is a shotgun

... iris of the eye. It launches the neurotransmitter acetylcholine from sac-like vesicles across the synapse to two types of receptors, called alpha 7 and alpha 3. Sejnowski and his colleagues transformed their map into a functional computer model by incorporating the physiological details of neurotransmitter relea...

Small worm yields big clue on muscle receptor action

...research on muscle function. The neurotransmitter acetylcholine binds to two different nicotinic receptors at the ...bunit composition only of the levamisole-sensitive acetylcholine receptors. In the second, levamisole-insensitive acetylcholine receptors, a subunit called acetylcho...

Second messenger NAADP shows fast, dose-related impact on satiety cycle

... the hormone cholecystokinin, the neurotransmitter acetylcholine failed to affect NAADP level, even when applied at supramaximal concentrations in terms of physiological relevance and which saturate the calcium amplitude and spiking frequency. In conclusion, Yamasaki said, "Our data in this experiment provides th...

Brain-injury rehabilitation depends on acetylcholine circuitry

...lso concluded that drugs that inhibit breakdown of acetylcholine or those that encourage brain wiring growth "may enhance cortical plasticity and improve functional recovery following nervous system injury." The researchers also noted that brain circuitry that depends on other types of neurotransmitters such as n...

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