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St. Jude study solves mystery of mammalian ears

...ell bodies rather than vibrating, hair-like cilia, according to investigators at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital. The finding could explain why dogs, cats, humans and other mammals have such sensitive hearing and the ability to discriminate among frequencies. The work also highlights the importance of ...

Carnegie Mellon scientists find key HIV protein makes cell membranes bend more easily

... FP-23 likely plays several roles in viral fusion, according to the researchers. One role already suspected is ...rgy required to penetrate a cell’s outer membrane, according to Tristram-Nagle and her collaborator, John Nagle, professor of physics and biological sciences at ...

Genomic Analysis Uncovers New Targets for HIV Vaccine

...nd B, HLA-C may represent an Achilles heel of HIV, according to Goldstein, who said that a vaccine could be designed to elicit an HLA-C mediated response which HIV-1 might be unable to defuse. "This study was the first time a genome-wide approach has been used for an infectious disease," Goldstein said. "Past...

Scratch no more: Gene for itch sensation discovered

...ch sensation without affecting the pain sensation, according to Chen. And because pain can be an important protective cue that warns of danger, it may be a distinct advantage to have an anti-itch medication that doesn't compromise our pain-sensing capability. GRPR had been fairly well studied before, but no o...

Nicotine rush hinges on sugar in neurons

...ing the sugar chains stopped the gate’s operation, according to Chen, who said, “The sugar is critical, in my opinion.” The researchers also found a water molecule deep in the receptor’s core – significant because proteins normally are filled with hydrophobic (water repellent) matter that helps the structure...

Blood test may help signal tumor's remission, return in throat cancer patients

...n treatment in people with advanced throat cancer, according to a study published in the June 1, 2007, issue of Clinical Cancer Research . Scientists in the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD) and National Cancer Institute (NCI), two of the National Institutes of Health (N...

Threats to wild tigers growing

...s has declined by 41 percent over the past decade, according to an article published in the June 2007 issue of ...mismanaged and have failed to protect the animals, according to the article. Plans to make use of tiger parts harvested from farmed tigers in China represent ...

Cigarette smoke alters DNA in sperm, genetic damage could pass to offspring

... tobacco by-products – of an average human smoker, according to research previously published by one of the study's co-authors. Yauk and her colleagues found that the rate of Ms6-hm mutations in the smoking mice were 1.4 times higher than that of non-smoking mice at six weeks, and 1.7 times that of non-smok...

Gene therapy delivery of nerve growth factors reverses erectile dysfunction in animal model

...e able to regain normal function after four weeks, according to a study conducted by University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine researchers. These findings are being presented at the 10th annual meeting of the American Society of Gene Therapy, which is convening May 30 to June 3 at the Washington State Conven...

Bigger horns equal better genes

...r reproductive mates (7 to 12), horn length varies according to genetic diversity: the greater the diversity, the greater the length of the horns. The researchers believe the horn length discrepancies are evidence to support the mutation accumulation theory of ageing, which is the idea that, because natur...

Largest synthetic gene ever built offers insights into anti-malarial drug resistance

... about 160 different species of malaria parasites, according to Roepe. Five infect humans, but P. falciparum is responsible for about 1 million deaths out of 300 million acute cases of infection each year. Most of these deaths occur in young children living in sub-Saharan Africa. Roepe and his collaborator...

Caribbean frogs started with a single, ancient voyage on a raft from South America

...om South America about 30-to-50-million years ago, according to DNA-sequence analyses led by a research group at Penn State, which will be published in the 12 June 2007 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences and posted in the journal's online early edition this week. Similarly, the scien...

Millions of children denied drug that costs less than $3 a year

... an effective drug that costs less than $3 a year, according to an editorial in this week’s BMJ. Professor Emilio Perucca urges governments and non-governmental organisations in developing countries to ensure that effective treatment is available for all. Of the 35 million people with epilepsy who live in ...

In mice, drug protects against diabetes and atherosclerosis

...e genetically predisposed to these common killers, according to an article published online at Nature on June 6, 2007. The team was led by senior author Gökhan Hotamisligil, chair of the Department of Genetics and Complex Diseases at the Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH). Lead author was Masato Furuhashi,...

Columbine flowers develop long nectar spurs in response to pollinators

...r evolution until another pollinator shift occurs, according to William Zamer, deputy director of NSF's division of integrative organismal systems. "In the case of these flowers, changes appear to happen relatively rapidly in response to changes in pollinators," said Zamer....

Longer treatment benefits sleep apnea patients

...CPAP), a device to improve breathing during sleep, according to a new study supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) of the National Institutes of Health. This is the first study to identify the nightly duration of CPAP use needed to gain maximum benefit for daytime alertness and func...

Brain holds clues to bipolar disorder

...tanding, diagnosing and treating bipolar disorder, according to findings being presented today at the Seventh International Conference on Bipolar Disorder. Two studies, featured in a press briefing held at 12:15 p.m., Thursday, June 7, have helped to identify novel pathways and markers for diagnosis and treatm...

Ancient DNA traces the woolly mammoth's disappearance

...ths, one of the most iconic of all Ice Age giants, according to a June 7th report published online in Current Biology, a publication of Cell Press. DNA lifted from the bones, teeth, and tusks of the extinct mammoths revealed a “genetic signature” of a range expansion after the last interglacial period. After ...

New study finds genetically engineered crops could play a role in sustainable agriculture

...increased productivity in sustainable agriculture, according to a groundbreaking study published in the June 8 issue of the journal Science. The study analyzes, for the first time, environmental impact data from field experiments all over the world, involving corn and cotton plants with a Bt gene inserted for...

Research shows cord blood comparable to matched bone marrow

...ents better outcomes than bone marrow transplants, according to an analysis of outcome data performed at the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR), Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. This is the first study that directly compares matched bone marrow, which is currently c...

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