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Tag: "neuron" at medical news

A new century of Alzheimer's disease research

...t transport the molecular cargo needed to keep the neuron alive. “Either the roads provided by the microtu... we may be able to repair that process so that the neuron can rebound,” she says. Their achievement was reported in 2005 in Science. “These tau findings ch...

Insight Into Neural Stem Cells Has Implications For Designing Therapies

...numbers in the culture dish to obtain a particular neuron type, and transplant them back into patients. Notably, the distribution of adult neural stem cells throughout the subventricular zone raises the possibility, he says, that the cells' activity is regionally modulated in order to regulate the product...

Researchers Reverse Mental Retardation Symptoms in Mice

...ndritic spines on the branch-like dendrites of one neuron receive chemical signals from other neurons and communicate them to the main cell body. The numbers and shapes of dendritic spines are key to normal brain function. FXS patients have higher numbers of dendritic spines in their brains, but each spin...

Male Pheromones Build Brain Cells in Female Mice

...esearchers are not sure whether pheromones trigger neuron formation in humans or not. They say that it is still a matter of speculation whether a subconscious whiff of an alpha-male's urine could turn a woman's head. "Olfaction is a subtle and underappreciated sense. Maybe we've underestimated its import...

Multiple Sclerosis Could Be Checked Through Testosterone Gel

...ction of myelin (demyelination) and transection of neuron axons in patches throughout the brain and spinal cord. The name multiple sclerosis refers to the multiple scars (or scleroses) on the myelin sheaths. This scarring causes symptoms which vary widely depending upon which signals are interrupted. Test...

Brain Cells Activity: New Treatment Target for Psychiatric Diseases

...cide what message to move forward. "This pyramidal neuron receives inhibitory input and excitatory input, an... inhibition in depression, as examples. "If this neuron is too excited, people may get manic or have seizures," says Dr. Mei. "Patients with schizophrenia, ...

Dystonia Awareness Week: 4 -11 June, 2007

...ngly, dystonia is ten times more common than motor neuron disease. It is also a major symptom in about 50 diseases and conditions. Ethnic populations seem to be more prone to dystonia; those of European Ashkenazi Jewish descent are especially susceptible to early-onset primary dystonia. Of the approximate...

Radical Idea of Implanting Tiny Electrodes to the Deaf

...ditory nerve implants. These measurements employed neuron -monitoring technology developed earlier at U-M. The scientists found their sensitive 16-electrode microarray resulted in several advantages over cochlear implants. Approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 1984, cochlear implants have greatl...

Myelin Associated With Early Evolution of Huntington's Disease

...any human disorders. To spot myelin destruction, neuron death and iron accumulation in the brains of HD subjects, Bartzokis used two magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machines operating at different field strengths. Measurements of myelin breakdown and iron content were taken from the brains of 11 HD subje...

The Origin of the Brain Lies in a Worm

...ulatory genes expressed, which endow every type of neuron with a specific molecular fingerprint. Comparing t...nd Platynereis. Corresponding regions give rise to neuron types with similar molecular fingerprints and these neurons also go on to form the same neural struc...

Scientists Identify Genes Activated During Learning and Memory

...ke place, certain genes must be activated to alter neuron activity inside the brain//. Disruptions in normal...ictate the assembly of other proteins that alter a neuron during memory and learning. The Carnegie Mellon team created a step-by-step set of instruction...

Stem Cells Provide New Tool for Studying Disease and Identifying ALS Drugs

...for potential new therapies aimed at slowing motor neuron degeneration in ALS. "That's what happens when scientists from major institutions work together toward shared goals. Project A.L.S. prides itself on building productive research teams from elegant parts," said Valerie Estess, director of research f...

Glucose Causes Death of Brain Cells in Rodents Following Hypoglycemic Coma

...earchers then discovered that oxidative stress and neuron death were prevented when the rats were given an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, indicating a key role for this enzyme. 'It is well-established that mitochondria can be a source of oxidative stress,' says Swanson. 'But in this setting, oxidative stress...

Mechanism of Nicotine's Learning Effects Explored

...clude the strength of the connections by which one neuron triggers another. Huibert Mansvelder and colleague...eurotransmitters are the chemical signals that one neuron launches at another to trigger a nerve impulse in the receiving neuron. In their studies, Mansveld...

Mobility can be improved in elders with exercise

...allest controllable unit consists of an individual neuron and the muscle fibers it stimulates. We believe that our research is very important to our understanding of motor-control mechanisms in general and impaired control in patient populations.' Shedding light on the communication between neurons and mu...

Nanoparticle Research Offers Hope of Artificial Retinas, Prostheses

... Nano Letters paper. "When the current reaches the neuron membrane, it depolarizes the cell to the point where it fires, and you get a signal in the nerve." Although light signals have previously been transmitted to nerve cells using silicon (whose ability to turn light into electricity is employed in sol...

Scientists Produce Neurons from Human Skin

... samples to various treatments in order to extract neuron precursor cells, which they then proceeded to cultivate in vitro. Skin itself does not contain neurons, which are hosted in the spinal cord, but contains only their extensions, called "axons." The researchers’ challenge was thus to produce neurons fr...

New Gene Linked to Autism Discovered

...rt of a family of genes believed to play a part in neuron communication during brain development. The results are published in Nature Genetics. Children with autism (80 percent are males) have difficulty interacting and communicating with others including family members. They often exhibit repetitive b...

Gene Behind Lincoln’s Diseas

..." he says. "But if you break the wire or axon, the neuron doesn't work anymore. It's sort of the weakest link in the process." Source-Eurekalert PRI...

New Ideas on Developing Thought-Controlled Artificial Limbs

...n in a bioreactor. Axons sprout out to connect the neuron populations on each plate. The plates are then slowly pulled apart over a series of days, aided by a precise computer-controlled motor system, until they reached a desired length. For the interface, one of the plates is an electrical microchip. Bec...

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