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Retrotransposons in Medical News

International team cracks mammalian gene control code

... and leave copies of themselves behind. "The dogma in the field is that retrotransposons are only active in cancer cells and cells that turn into eggs and sperm," Dr Faulkner said. "Our results showed that retrotransposons that can no longer move around the genome may still be expressed in a ...

BWF awards $11.2 million to support physician-scientists

... regulators of the osteoclast differentiation program Kathleen H. Burns, M.D., Ph.D. Johns Hopkins University Investigating the role of retrotransposons in hematopoietic neoplasias Daniel Cahill, M.D., Ph.D. Harvard Medical School Translational molecular genetic analyses of chemotherapeutic ...
Retrotransposons in Biological News

New research shows how gene function drives natural selection in important class of genetic elements

... leukosis and feline leukemia. "Because LTR retrotransposons are abundant and impact host genomes, we wanted ... The researchers examined selection pressure on retrotransposons using Oryza sativariceas a model plant genome. ... inserted. "Overwhelmingly, we found that LTR retrotransposons are under significant evolutionary constraint, by ...

Mapping a clan of mobile selfish genes

... some become unable to make copies of themselves. To identify the Alu retrotransposons that are still capable of moving around, Devine and graduate student E. ... transposon-mediated threat to our genomes," Devine says. The term retrotransposons comes from how they replicate: first, the DNA is transcribed (copied) into ...

Kansas state flower receives scientific attention

... said. "We are trying to understand the circumstances that caused retrotransposons to become active and proliferate in these sunflowers and the evolutionary ... of these proliferation events," Ungerer said. He also noted that retrotransposons are not just found in sunflowers but in virtually all plants and animals, ...

Darwin's legacy in 21st century biology

... Lunch: 12:15 to 1:30 Dr. Haig Kazazian, Seymour Gray Professor of Molecular and Medical Genetics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine. retrotransposons in humans. Dr. Nancy Cox, Professor, Department of Human Genetics, Chief of the Section of Genetic Medicine University of Chicago. Genetic ...

Researchers solve piece of large-scale gene silencing mystery

... nucleotide sequence. In nature, cells use RNAi to silence "junk DNA," noncoding regions of the DNA, and "selfish DNA" such as virus-derived retrotransposons (jumping genes) that can be detrimental if activated. In the lab, Pikaard and his collaborators use RNAi to "knockdown" expression of target ...

New gene-silencing pathway found in plants

... generated by Pol IV. By acting as a scaffold for these siRNAs, the Pol V transcripts enable silencing of adjacent, virus-derived genes such as retrotransposons (jumping genes) that can be detrimental if activated. Pikaard and colleagues were able to confirm that both Pol IV and Pol V are necessary for ...

Insight into DNA's 'weakest links' may yield clues to cancer biology

... containing "retrotransposons" called Ty elements. retrotransposons are mobile gene segments that duplicate ... is in a single-stranded form, multiple copies of retrotransposons are more likely to interact, forming a kink in ... improperly excised and repaired by rejoining with retrotransposons on other chromosomes. "The current findings ...

New RNA polymerase discovered in plants

... RNAs called siRNAs corresponding to highly repeated 5S rRNA genes and retrotransposons (jumping genes) are completely eliminated and DNA methylation at 5S genes and retrotransposons is lost. Methylation is a vital process involving a chemical ...
Retrotransposons in Biological Definition

Retrovirus

... transcriptase activity outside of retroviruses has been found in almost all eukaryotes, enabling the generation and insertion of new copies of retrotransposons into the host genome. Because reverse transcription is missing the usual "proofreading" of DNA transcription, this kind of virus mutates very ...
Retrotransposons in Biological Dictionary

Retrotransposons

... retrotransposons are genetic elements that can amplify ... often a principal ... 1.1 Class I: retrotransposons . 1.1.1 Retroviruses as transposable elements ... Initially retrotransposons copy themselves to RNA (transcription) but, in ....

Retrovirus

... and more. ... A retrovirus is any virus belonging to the ... 1960's: Howard Temin knew that retrovirus genomes were composed of RNA and ... retrotransposons - endogenous retrovirus -like genetic elements: ... In addition to RNA, retrovirus particles also contain the enzyme reverse ... When a ...

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