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Organelles in Medical News

'Artificial Golgi' may provide new insight into key cell structure

... point out that Golgi bodies are one of the most poorly understood organelles (specialized structures inside cells) in the human body. Scientists already know, however, that the organelles play a key role in producing heparin, a substance that helps prevent ...

Transgenomic Obtains Exclusive License to Mitochondrial DNA Damage Detection Technology

... increased oxidative damage within mitochondria. Mitochondria are organelles that produce the energy required for cells to function normally. As the ... About Mitochondrial DNA Tests from Transgenomic Mitochondria are organelles that produce the energy required for cells to function normally. There ...

Mitochondria play role in pathogenesis of AD and estrogen-induced neuroprotection

... Award. He also received an AAA travel award. Mitochondria, small organelles within the cells, use a process called Oxidative Phosphorylation to ... include: an increase of mitochondrial efficiency, enhancing the organelles ability to generate energy-laden ATP molecules needed by the brain; ...

Capsules encapsulated

... and nontoxic", says Brigitte Staedler, a senior researcher in the group, "they would also be suitable for use as resorbable synthetic cell organelles and for the transport of drugs." In addition, the scientists are planning to encapsulate liposomes filled with different enzymes together and to ...

Zebrafish Journal Publishes Skin Pigmentation Studies That Shed Light on the Evolution of Race

... ornamental traits of the guppy, the link between pigment and fish behavior, and pigment dilution mutants in fish models connected to lysosome-related organelles and vesicular traffic genes. Zebrafish is an authoritative peer-reviewed journal published quarterly in print and online. This is the only ...

Researchers identify toehold for HIV's assault on brain

... that Tat works through the ryanodine receptor to sicken neurons in two ways. Scientists have known that Tat makes vulnerable the mitochondria, organelles within neurons and other cells that are commonly considered the "power packs" or energy sources for cells. The team discovered that Tat destroys the ...

NYP/Weill Cornell gene therapy clinical trial yields promising results for Batten disease

... the disease, causing a deficiency in the enzyme TTP-1, which is responsible for ridding cells of the central nervous system of waste materials. Small organelles within the cell, called lysosomes, become clogged with toxic material within the neurons of the brain. "It's like the garbage man of the cell is ...

Unexpected role: EGFR protects cancer cells from starving

... cells died of autophagy - a self-cannibalization response in which a cell under stress or lacking nutrients devours part of its cytoplasm and other organelles to survive. When this response goes on long enough, the cell essentially eats itself until it dies. In cancer research, autophagy is thought to be a ...

Scripps scientists find calcium channel blockers help normalize lysosomal storage disease cells

... storage diseases result from deficient enzyme activity that leads to an accumulation of molecules that the enzymes break down in the lysosomes, organelles or subcellular compartments that normally break down macromolecules utilizing hundreds of degradatory enzymes. In many lysosomal storage diseases, ...

Pathway to cell death redefined in landmark study

... caused by the calpain family of cysteine proteases and by neutralizing other cysteine proteases released from injured cellular structures called organelles as they are being digested by the lysosome. As part of their study, Drs. Silverman, Luke and colleagues labeled enzymes within the lysosomes of ...

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Organelles in Medical Technology

Pressure BioSciences, Inc. Announces $850,000 NIH SBIR Phase II Award for the Development of a New PCT-dependent System for Improved Biomarker Discovery, Diagnostics, and Drug Discovery

... of novel, automated, and reproducible methods for the extraction of clinically important protein biomarkers, subcellular molecular complexes, and organelles (such as mitochondria) from cells and tissues using the Company's patented pressure cycling technology ("PCT"). The Grant is for a total of $850,000, ...

Antipodean Pharmaceuticals Announces Completion of Phase 2 Study of Lead Compound MitoQ(R)

... apoptosis. MitoQ(R) is based on a novel technology, targeted lipophilic cations that transport and concentrate antioxidants into the mitochondria -- organelles inside cells that provide energy for life processes -- where they accumulate up to a thousand fold. About Antipodean Antipodean is a ...

Protein Found to Shield Pancreatic Cancer Cells from Self-Destruction

... the cells die via damage to their nucleus and DNA, with other cellular organelles preserved. Autophagy kills by degrading those other organelles while sparing the nucleus. Mehta's lab reported in a Cancer Research ...
Organelles in Medical Definition

Pathology

... to the cell types and nature of the injury. In the short term, cells may activate specific genetic programs to protect their vital proteins and organelles from heat shock or hypoxia , and may activate DNA repair pathways to fix damage to chromosomes from radiation or chemicals. Hyperplasia ...
Organelles in Biological News

Advance in understanding cellulose synthesis

... called the actin cytoskeleton that helps move organelles and maintains the cell's shape. They found that ... active cellulose synthase complexes disappear and organelles accumulate just under the plasma membrane. These organelles contain cellulose synthase and are tethered to ...

Self-digestion as a means of survival

... - known as autophagy - takes place in special organelles called autophagosomes. It is a strategy that ... for getting rid of misfolded proteins, damaged organelles or disease-causing bacteria. If this process ... autophagosomes know exactly which proteins and organelles they should degrade. "Although autophagy has ...

Biologists at UC San Diego identify key protein in cell's 'self-eating' function

... cells dispose of bacteria, viruses, damaged organelles and other non-essential components through this ... of oxidative chemical reactions. Different organelles within the cell are degraded by lysosomes when the organelles are damaged or not necessary, said Jean-Claude ...

Artificial cells, simple model for complex structure

... fills the cell and is crowded with very large molecules. It surrounds the organelles -- tiny organs like mitochondria and the nucleus. Unlike organelles, the ... is interesting as a major player in cell function. Creating a cell with organelles would be a monumental task, but creating one that exhibits molecular ...

Mayo Clinic: Brain disorder suggests common mechanism may underlie many neurodegenerative diseases

... M.D., professor of neurology at Mayo Clinic. Molecules, vesicles and organelles within a cell are constantly carried via a network of crisscrossing ... says Dr. Farrer. "The insides of neurons are very dynamic. Molecules and organelles are constantly being moved to where they are needed, so it makes sense ...

Researchers at IRB Barcelona produce more data on key genes in diabetes

... subjects show functional alterations in mitochondria. These intracellular organelles are responsible for transforming glucose into energy that the cell will ... is that mitochondrial fusion is crucial for the correct function of these organelles and when the gene that regulates this fusion is decreased, the function of ...

Nanotubes could help study retrovirus transmission between human cells

... recently as trafficking routes is because of labeling studies that marked organelles and proteins. This allowed a focused look at what these nanostructures might be used for." It became clear, says Sasaki, that the organelles were being transported with "specific directionality" on the backs of ...

Spradling receives Gruber Foundation Genetics Prize for new genetic techniques

... eggs. In both flies and mice, cytoplasmic filaments are reorganized and organelles are transported from cell to cell as part of this process. The reason ... unproven, but Spradling believes they help remove damaged molecules and organelles from the future oocytes, and transfer them to partner cells that will ...

Nixing immaturity in red blood cells

... a protein called Nix, the cells would not effectively rid themselves of organelles called mitochondria and consequently become short-lived, leading to ... in red blood cells, said Wang. When other cells get old or stressed, their organelles may become damaged and need to be cleared by autophagy for quality ....

Biologists find unusual plant gene: abstinence by mutual consent

... is responsible for producing a protein called peroxin that targets small organelles inside the cell called peroxisomes. Within the cell, peroxisomes are small organelles whose main functions are metabolizing fatty acids, protecting the cell ...

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Organelles in Biological Technology

Cells Exhibition Opens at Maryland Science Center

... Visitors to the exhibition become "cell explorers" in The World Inside a Cell section, where they interact with human-sized cell organelles in an interactive environment enhanced with floating layers of translucent membranes, pulsing light, music and sounds of water. Cell explorers ...

Glossary for The BioPharm Guide to Fermentation and Cell Culture

... produce antibodies. lysosomes Cell organelles containing enzymes, responsible for degrading ... eye. microtubules Cellular organelles common in microorganisms: thin tubes ... movement. mitochondria Animal-cell organelles that reproduce using their own DNA. ...

Sub-Micron Gold Particles Are Superior to Larger Particles for Efficient Biolistic Transformation of Organelles and Some Cells

... been used to transform bacteria and subcellular organelles (Boynton & Gillham, 1993, 1996; Butow ... stable transformation of cellular organelles (chloroplasts and mitochondria) and certain cell ... less cell damage, resulting in better survival. organelles could be irreversibly destroyed upon ...

Optimization of Biolistic Transformation Using the Helium-Driven PDS-1000/He System

... et al., 1988 a, b), animal (Williams, et al., 1991), and microbial species (Shark, et al., 1991), as well as into subcellular organelles (Johnston, et al., 1988; Daniell, et al., 1991). Achieving high rates of DNA expression in each of these cases often requires ...

Isolation of Microorganisms

... can be used for cloning and isolating microorganisms (such as bacteria, archaea, protozoa and fungi) as well as eukaryotic organelles and cell nuclei. The risk of contamination during the identification of non-cultivatable microorganisms from mixed cultures ...
Organelles in Biological Products

Essential Data: Centrifugation from Promega

Description:... Ford and J.T. Steensgaard (1994) Compiles core data required by researchers carrying out any centrifugal separation, whether working with cells, organelles or ....
Company:Promega

Endoplasmic Reticulum Isolation Kit from Sigma-Aldrich

Description:... Benefits: Specially formulated extraction reagents for research scale applications - save time and minimize waste Produces functional intact organelles - resulting ER are suitable for metabolic assays and disease state analysis Compatible with products for structure confirmation - easily confirm ...
Company:Sigma-Aldrich

PDS-1000 He System from Bio-Rad

Description:... helium gas to accelerate micron-size nucleic acid-coated gold or tungsten microparticles to velocities necessary to transfect cells, tissues, or organelles without dependence or interaction with the cell surface. The system includes helium pressure regulator, solenoid, spacer rods, microcarrier launch ...
Company:Bio-Rad
Organelles in Biological Definition

Eukaryote

... of internal membranes and structures, called organelles , and a cytoskeleton composed of microtubules ... It is probable that most other membrane-bound organelles are ultimately derived from such vesicles. The ... Mitochondria and plastids Mitochondria are organelles found in nearly all eukaryotes. They are ...

Bacterium

... simple cell structure lacking a cell nucleus , cytoskeleton, and organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts . Their cell structure is further ... to be very old organisms, appearing about 3.7 billion years ago. Two organelles , mitochondria and chloroplasts , are generally believed to have been ...

Cell biology

... ways: Cell fractionation Flow cytometry Release of cellular organelles by disruption of cells. Separation of different organelles by centrifugation . Proteins extracted from membranes by detergents ...

Chloroplast

... Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae which conduct ... are similar to mitochondria but are found only in plants. Both organelles are surrounded by a double membrane with an intermembrane space; both have ...

Cytoplasm

... matter contained within the cell 's plasma membrane , in which organelles are suspended. In contrast to the protoplasm , the cytoplasm does not ... interior is liquid. The insoluble constituents of the cytoplasm are organelles (such as the mitochondria , the chloroplast , lysosomes , peroxysomes ...

Cytoskeleton

... is a cellular " scaffolding " or " skeleton " contained, as all other organelles , within the cytoplasm . It is a dynamic structure that maintains cell ... transport (asociated with dyneins and kinesins they transport organelles like mitochondria or vesicles .) the axoneme of cilia and ...

Cytosol

... The cytosol (as opposed to cytoplasm , which also includes the organelles ) is the internal fluid of the cell , and a large part of cell ... take place in the cytosol. In eukaryotes , the cytosol contains the cell organelles . In plants, the amount of cytosol can be reduced due to the large ...

Endomembrane system

... that divide the cell into functional and structural compartments, or organelles . Prokaryotes do not have an endomembrane system and thus lack most ... with proteins attached to either side or traversing them. The following organelles are part of the endomembrane system: The plasma membrane is a lipid ...

Endosymbiotic theory

... concerns the origins of mitochondria and chloroplasts , which are organelles of eukaryotic cells. According to this theory, these originated as ... close similarity to each other is difficult to explain. The size of both organelles is comparable to bacteria. These organelle's ribosomes are like ...

Bacterium

... simple cell structure lacking a cell nucleus , cytoskeleton, and organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts . Their cell structure is further ... to be very old organisms, appearing about 3.7 billion years ago. Two organelles , mitochondria and chloroplasts , are generally believed to have been ...

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Organelles in Biological Dictionary

Organelles

... Within the cytoplasm, the major organelles and cellular structures include: (1) ... There are many types of organelles , particularly in eukaryotic cells. ... Also, they lack many other internal organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts. ... ...

Lysosomes

... Lysosomes are organelles containing digestive enzymes . They are found ... primary sites of intracellular digestion are organelles known as the lysosomes , which are ... biology and life science to everyone! ... find organelles called lysosomes in nearly every animal ... ...

Cytosol

... by cell membranes from the contents of the organelles suspended in the cytosol , such as the ... ) n. The fluid component of cytoplasm, excluding organelles and the insoluble, usually suspended, ... ... Cytosol . The fluid in which the organelles of the cytoplasm are suspended. ... ...

Cytoplasm

... of the cytoplasm outside of the individual organelles is called the cytosol. ... Film on the jelly-like substance, which supports organelles that are critical to each cell's survival. ... The portion of the cytoplasm that lies outside organelles and includes other ... Definition of ...

Chloroplasts

... Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and other eukaryotic ...... This process is carried out in specialized organelles called chloroplasts . ... Chloroplasts ... ... genetic information. ... Chloroplasts are organelles (compartments) found in plant cells and ...

Chloroplast

...... This process is carried out in specialized organelles called chloroplasts . ... On the average, the ... Search " Chloroplast " ... Chloroplasts are organelles (compartments) found in plant cells and ... very important to its ... Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae ...

Centriole

... centriole one of two small cylindrical cell organelles composes of 9 triplet microtubules; ... ... and ... Centrioles are self-replicating organelles made up of ... Centrioles play a notable role ... - one of a pair of small cylindrical cell organelles near the nucleus ... Get information, ...

Vacuoles

... essays, summaries, research information, and more. ... Vacuoles are organelles of plant, fungal, and ... contractile vacuole n. A membrane-bound ... in animals. The vacuoles tend to be so large that they push all other organelles against the ... Bargain prices on Vacuoles , store variety for ...

Ribosomes

... The ribosomes ... All living cells contain ribosomes , tiny organelles composed of approximately 60 percent ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and 40 percent ... ... structure and function of eukaryotic ribosomes . ... Ribosomes are organelles that consist of RNA ... both cases, the ribosomes usually form ...

Prokaryotes

... do not have a nucleus in which DNA is housed and which lack many of the organelles found in more The Biology Project > Cell Biology > PEV > ... the basis of nuclear ... Prokaryotes also lack any of the intracellular organelles and structures that ... Information about Prokaryotes in the free ...

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